Introduction of Yī Bèi Mǔ:Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Fritillaria walujewii Regel, ②.Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae(Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb).

Fritillaria walujewii Regel:flowering plant 01 Pin Yin Name: Yī Bèi Mǔ.
 English Name: Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb.
 Latin Name: Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold,bitter,sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae is the dried bulb of Fritillaria walujewii Regel or Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk(family Liliaceae), used as thunbery fritillary bulb. The herb is commonly known as Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae, Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb, Yī Bèi Mǔ.

 Botanical source: The herb Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae(Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb) is the dried bulb of Fritillaria walujewii Regel or Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk, they are plants of Fritillaria L. genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliflorae order. It is also known as Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb, Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae or Yī Bèi Mǔ.

 Fritillaria walujewii Regel:flowering plant 02 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae(Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb) as the dried bulb of:(1). Fritillaria walujewii Regel or (2). Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Fritillaria walujewii Regel.


 Botanical description: It is also known as Yī Bèi Mǔ or Yī Li Bèi Mǔ. Perennial herbaria, 30~60 cm tall. Bulbs are composed of 2 scales, 1.5~3.5 cm in diameter, the upper end of the scales is elongated membranous, the bulb skin is thicker. Leaves usually scattered, sometimes subopposite or subwhorl; Leaf blade narrowly ovate to lanceolate from bottom to top, ca. 7~12 cm long, 2~3.5 cm wide, apex uncurled. 1~4 flowers, pale yellow, with dark red spots, 1~3 leaflike bracts per flower, apex not curly, 6 perianth segments, spatulate oblong, 3~4 cm long, 1.2~1.6 cm wide, pale yellow, dense glandular fossa prominent on abaxially. Stamens are about 2/3 of the length of perianth, anthers subbasal, filaments without papillary process, stigma segments are about 2 mm long, capsule ribs have broad wings, flowering in May.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a wet and cool climate, cold resistance, afraid of high humidity, bulbs not resistant to frost damage at -10 degrees C, temperature suitable for growth is 5~20 degrees C. The soil requirements are not strict, but the desert loam with good drainage, deep soil layer, loose, rich in humus is good for cultivation.

 Fritillaria walujewii Regel:flowering plant 03 Ecological environment: The plant grows under forest or on a grassy slope at an altitude of 1300-1780 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in the western Xinjiang province of China.

 Characters of herbs: The bulb (of the Fritillaria walujewii Regel) is oval, oblate or oval conical, with a height of 0.8~1.8 cm and a diameter of 1~2.3 cm. The surface is light yellowish or off-white, slightly rough, sometimes yellow-brown spots or patches can be seen, and the two scales of the outer layer are heart-shaped or crescent-shaped, thick, nearly equal or larger, clasped, slightly pointed at the top, and rarely cracked. The texture of the herb is slightly loose and fragile, the fracture surface is white powdery. The herb has slight smell, it tastes slightly bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antihypertensive effect; ②.Antispasmolysis.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear the lungs, reduce phlegm, eliminating stagnation, indicated for lung heat and cough, sputum sticky and choking sensation in the chest, over-strained cough and hemoptysis(spit blood), scrofula, carbuncle swelling, etc.

 Administration of Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae(Yī Bèi Mǔ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae(Yī Bèi Mǔ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.3~9 grams; ③.3~9 grams, water decoction; grinded to fine powder and prepared to pills, powder.
 Precautions: should not be combined with herbs of Aconiti species.

(2).Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk.


 Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk:flowering plant 01 Botanical description: It is also known as Xin Jiang Bèi Mǔ. Herbs, 25~40 cm tall. Bulbs 1~1.5 cm thick. It consists of scales that are slightly hypertrophic. Leaves opposite or whorled, leaf blade lanceolate or striate, 5~9 cm long, 3~10 cm wide, uppermost with 3 whorled leaf-like bracts, bracts apex extremely curly. Single terminal, perianth bell-shaped, perianth slice 6, purplish outside, purplish inside, with white or yellow checkerboard markings, base with concave nectary above, stamens 1/2 the length of perianth slice; Style slightly longer than ovary, stigma 3-lobed, lobes about 1/4 the length of the style. Capsule 1.8~3 cm long, wings 4~5 mm wide on edges. It is flowering from May to June, fruiting from July to August.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a wet and cool climate, cold resistance, afraid of high humidity, bulbs not resistant to frost damage at -10 degrees C, temperature suitable for growth is 5~20 degrees C. The soil requirements are not strict, but the desert loam with good drainage, deep soil layer, loose, rich in humus is good for cultivation.

 Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk:flowering plant 02 Ecological environment: The plant grows in a damp area in a forest with an altitude of 1,300~2,000 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in the Xinjiang province of China.

 Characters of herbs: The bulb (of the Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk) is oblate or conical, with a height of 0.5~1.5 cm and a diameter of 0.6~1.2 cm. The surface is off-white or light yellowish brown, smooth. The two scales of the outer layer are nearly equal in size, or one is slightly larger and close together. The apex is blunt, flat and dehiscent, the base is blunt, and there are one large scale or residual stem and one heart bud in it. The texture of the herb is solid and firm. The fracture surface is white and rich in powder. The herb has a slight smell, it tastes bitter.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Yī Bèi Mǔ:Sinkiang Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillariae Pallidiflorae.

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