Introduction of Chuan Bei Mu:Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Antitussives Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon02 Introduction: Antitussives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that stops coughing.

 
Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb).

Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.:flowering plant Pin Yin Name: Chuān Bèi Mǔ.
 English Name: Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb.
 Latin Name: Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, bitter, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae is the dried bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don,Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. Or Fritillaria delavayi Franchi.(family Liliaceae), used (1).to clear heat, resolve phlegm, moisten the lung for relieving dry cough due to lung heat and chronic cough with bloody sputum in cases of phthisis, and (2).to dissipate nodulation for treating boils, sores, mastitis, and lung abscess.

 Botanical source: The herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb) is the dried bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don, Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. Or Fritillaria delavayi Franchi., they are plants of Fritillaria L. genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliales order. It is also known as Unibract Fritillary Bulb, Bulb of Unibract Fritillary, Bulb of Tendrilleaf Fritillary, Bulb of Przewalsk Fritillary, Bulb of Delavay Fritillary or Chuān Bèi Mǔ.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.:flowering plant Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb) as the dried bulb of:(1). Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don or (2). Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia., (3). Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim., (4). Fritillaria delavayi Franch., (5).Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch. These 5 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.


 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Chuan Bèi Mǔ, or Curled-Leaf Fritillary Bulb. It is a perennial herb with great morphological changes. Bulbs ovoid, composed of 2 scales, leaves usually opposite, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, occasionally scattered or whorled in middle; Leaf blade striate to striate lanceolate, apex slightly curly or uncurly. Flowers solitary stem apex, purple to yellowish-green, usually with small squares, few with spots or stripes; Each flower has 3 leaflike bracts, narrow, 2~4 mm wide; 6 tepals, 3~4 cm long, 3 outers, 1~1.4 cm wide, 3 inner, subobovate or ellipsoid, up to 1.8 cm wide. Nectary fossae distinctly protruding abaxially; Stamens are about 3/5 of tepals long, anthers subbasal, filaments with papillae. Stigma segment length 3~5 mm. Capsule ribs with narrow wings 1~1.5 mm wide. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting period is from August to October.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don..:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows under thickets, grasslands, rivers, valleys, and other wetlands or rock crevices. Curly leaf fritillaria mainly distributes in the west-south area of China, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The Fritillaria cirrhosa grows under forest thickets, grasslands, rivers, valleys, and other wetlands or rock crevices.

 Characters of herbs: The bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia., Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don., Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. are respectively known as "Song Bei" and "Qing Bei" according to different traits.

 Song Bei is conical or subspherical, 0.3~0.8 cm high and 0.3~0.9 cm in diameter. The surface is off-white. The outer scale leaf has two petals, the size is very different. The large lobe holds the small lobe tightly, and the part not held is like a new moon, commonly known as "the moon held in the cup". The top is closed, and there are 1 to 2 core buds and small scale leaves with a cylindrical shape and slightly pointed tip. Apex obtuse or slightly apiculate, bottom flat, slightly concave, center with 1 grayish brown bulb, occasionally with residual fibrous roots. The texture is hard and crisp, the cross-section is white, rich in powder. The smell is slight and the taste is slightly bitter.

 Qing Bei is oblate, 0.4-1.4 cm high, and 0.4-1.6 cm in diameter. Outer scales have 2 petals, similar in size, relative obvolvent, cracked at the top, with 2-3 buds and small scales inside and slender cylindrical residual stem.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antitussive and expectorant effects; ②.antihypertensive effect; ③.inhibit the growth and reproduction of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and moisten the lung, reduce phlegm and stop cough, indicated for the treatment of lung heat and dry cough, dry cough with little phlegm, Yin deficiency and over-strained cough, cough sputum with blood.

 Administration of Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Chuān Bèi Mǔ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Chuān Bèi Mǔ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), or 1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams,DCTM), or 3~9 grams(CHMM), water decoction; grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, grinded into fine powder and apply stick.
 Precautions: should not be combined with herbs of Aconiti species.

(2).Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.


 Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as An Zi Bèi Mǔ, or Dark Purple Fritillary Bulb. It is perennial herbs, 15~25 cm high. Bulb globose or conical, consisting of 2 scales, 6~8 mm in diameter. Stem erect, simple, glabrous. Leaves 1~2 pairs opposite below, 1~2 scattered or opposite above, sessile, strip or strip lanceolate, 3.6~6.5 cm long; 3~7 mm wide, apex acute, not curly. Flowers solitary on top of the stem, dark yellow, with small yellow-brown squares; 1 leaf bracts, apex not curly; 6 tepals, 2 rounds, 2.5~2.7 cm long, 3 obovate-oblong inside, about 1 cm wide, and 3 nearly oblong outside, about 6 mm wide. Nectary fossa slightly protruding or not prominent; 6 stamens, about half as long as perianth, anthers subbasal, filaments with or without papillae; Stigma 3-lobed, lobes short and spreading, 0.5~1 mm long. Capsule oblong, 1~1.5 cm long, 1~1.2 cm wide, with 6 ribs, the wings on the ribs very narrow, about 1 mm wide. It is flowering in June, and fruiting in August.

 Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.:flowering plant Ecological environment: the Dark Purple fritillaria grows on the grassland at an altitude between 3,200-4,500 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in the southwest and west-north area of China.

(3).Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.


 Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Gan Su Bèi Mǔ, or Gan Su Fritillary Bulb. Perennial herb, 20~40 cm high. Bulb conical, consisting of 2 scales, 6~13 mm in diameter. Leaves usually the lowest 2 opposite, upper 2~3 scattered; Leaf blade striate, 3~7 cm long, 3~4 mm wide, apex usually not curly. Single terminal, rare 2 flowers, pale yellow, with black-purple spots; 1 leaf bracts, apex slightly curly or uncurly; Perianth 2~3 cm long, 3 pieces 6~7 mm wide, nectary fossa is not obvious. Stamens are about half the length of the perianth. Filaments with papillae; Stigma segment length less than 1 mm. Capsule ribs with narrow wings ca. 1 mm wide. It is flowering from June to July, fruiting in August.

 Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim grows in shrub or grassland at an altitude of 2,800 to 4,400 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in province Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan of China.

(4).Fritillaria delavayi Franch.


 Fritillaria delavayi Franch.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Suo Sha Bèi Mǔ. It is a perennial herb, 17~35 cm high. Bulbs oblong ovoid, consisting of 2~3 scales, 1~2 cm in diameter. Leaves alternate, 3~5 (including leaflike bracts) occurring more closely in the middle or upper part of the plant; Leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2~7 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, apex not curly. Single terminal, broadly bell-shaped, slightly pendulous, pale yellow, with reddish-brown spots or small squares; The perianth was 3.2~4.5 cm long and 1.2~1.5 cm wide, and the inner three pieces were slightly longer and wider than the outer three pieces. Stamens are about half as long as perianth, filaments do not have papillae; Stigma segment length is about 1 mm. The wings on the capsule ribs are about 1 mm wide, and the persistent perianth often more or less envelops the capsule. It is flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to September.

 Fritillaria delavayi Franch.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The Fritillaria delavayi Franch grows in the crevices of rocks on the flowing sand beach at an altitude of 3,800~4,700 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang of China.

 Characters of herbs: The bulb of the Fritillaria delavayi Franch is commonly known as "Lu Bei", the herb Lu Bei is a long conical shape, 0.7~2.5 cm in height and 0.5~2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is white or light brown-yellow, some with brown spots. Outer scales have 2 valves, similar in size, cracked at the top and slightly pointed, the base is slightly apical or obtuse.

(5).Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.


 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Kang Ding Bèi Mǔ, or Kang Ding Fritillary Bulb. Similar to Curled-Leaf Fritillary Bulb, but the plants and bulbs are often larger. Leaves in addition to the bottom 1~2 pairs for the opposite, most of the rest for scattered, apex does not curl. 1 foliate bracts, rarely 3. The flower has an apparent purple checkered spot.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch grows in the area at an altitude of 3,500~4,100 meters above sea level, in river forest or grassland. The plant mainly distributes in the Kangding area of Sichuan province, China.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chuan Bei Mu:Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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