Introduction of Chuan Bei Mu:Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source five plant species, ①.Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don., ②.Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia., ③.Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim., ④.Fritillaria delavayi Franch., ⑤.Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these five plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these five plant species, the features of the herb Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb).

Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.:flowering plant Pin Yin Name: Chuān Bèi Mǔ.
 English Name: Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb.
 Latin Name: Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, bitter, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae is the dried bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don,Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. Or Fritillaria delavayi Franchi.(family Liliaceae), used (1).to clear heat, resolve phlegm, moisten the lung for relieving dry cough due to lung heat and chronic cough with bloody sputum in cases of phthisis, and (2).to dissipate nodulation for treating boils, sores, mastitis, and lung abscess.

 Botanical source: The herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb) is the dried bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don, Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia, Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. Or Fritillaria delavayi Franchi., they are plants of Fritillaria L. genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliales order. It is also known as Unibract Fritillary Bulb, Bulb of Unibract Fritillary, Bulb of Tendrilleaf Fritillary, Bulb of Przewalsk Fritillary, Bulb of Delavay Fritillary or Chuān Bèi Mǔ.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.:flowering plant Herbal classic book defined the herb Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb) as the dried bulb of:(1). Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don or (2). Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C. Hsia., (3). Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim., (4). Fritillaria delavayi Franch., (5).Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch. These 5 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.


 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Chuan Bèi Mǔ, or Curled-Leaf Fritillary Bulb. It is a perennial herb with great morphological changes. Bulbs ovoid, composed of 2 scales, leaves usually opposite, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, occasionally scattered or whorled in middle; Leaf blade striate to striate lanceolate, apex slightly curly or uncurly. Flowers solitary stem apex, purple to yellowish-green, usually with small squares, few with spots or stripes; Each flower has 3 leaflike bracts, narrow, 2~4 mm wide; 6 tepals, 3~4 cm long, 3 outers, 1~1.4 cm wide, 3 inner, subobovate or ellipsoid, up to 1.8 cm wide. Nectary fossae distinctly protruding abaxially; Stamens are about 3/5 of tepals long, anthers subbasal, filaments with papillae. Stigma segment length 3~5 mm. Capsule ribs with narrow wings 1~1.5 mm wide. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting period is from August to October.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don..:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant grows under thickets, grasslands, rivers, valleys, and other wetlands or rock crevices. Curly leaf fritillaria mainly distributes in the west-south area of China, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The Fritillaria cirrhosa grows under forest thickets, grasslands, rivers, valleys, and other wetlands or rock crevices.

 Characters of herbs: The bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia., Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don., Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim. are respectively known as "Song Bei" and "Qing Bei" according to different traits. The quality of Song Bei and Qing Bei is better than Lu Bei, and Song Bei is better than Qing Bei.

 The dried bulb (of Song Bei) is conical, pointed or slightly pointed at the top, with a diameter of 4 ~ 12 mm, the smallest grains are called "Zhen Zhu Bei(pearl shell bulbs)". The surface is white or light yellow, and the out layer has 2 scaly leaves, 1 scaly leaf is large, slightly horseshoe-shaped, 1 scaly leaf is small, slightly lanceolate, and relatively clasped, with several small scaly leaves inside. At the center of the bottom, there is a small and hard bulb plate, under which a few fibrous root marks remain. No matter the grain size, it can stand upright, and the top is not cracked. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, rich in powder, the fracture surface is white and granular. The herb has a weak smell, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb which texture is solid and firm, grains are in uniform and tidy, no cracking at the top, white color and with sufficient powder are better.

 The dried bulb (of Qing Bei) is oblate or slightly conical, many grains are distorted, 5 ~ 10 mm in height and 1 ~ 1.6 cm in diameter. The appearance is white and light yellowish, the top is cracked, flat or slightly pointed, the two scales of the outer layer are almost equal in size, and fibrous roots are often left in the base. The fracture surface is pink white, granular, rich in powder and firm. The herb has no smell, it has a mild taste. The herb which grains are small and in uniform, white color and with sufficient powder, are better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antitussive and expectorant effects; ②.antihypertensive effect; ③.inhibit the growth and reproduction of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and moisten the lung, reduce phlegm and stop cough, indicated for the treatment of lung heat and dry cough, dry cough with little phlegm, Yin deficiency and over-strained cough, cough sputum with blood.

 Administration of Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Chuān Bèi Mǔ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae(Chuān Bèi Mǔ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams); ③.3~9 grams, water decoction; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick.
 Precautions: should not be combined with herbs of Aconiti species.

(2).Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.


 Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as An Zi Bèi Mǔ, or Dark Purple Fritillary Bulb. It is perennial herbs, 15~25 cm high. Bulb globose or conical, consisting of 2 scales, 6~8 mm in diameter. Stem erect, simple, glabrous. Leaves 1~2 pairs opposite below, 1~2 scattered or opposite above, sessile, strip or strip lanceolate, 3.6~6.5 cm long; 3~7 mm wide, apex acute, not curly. Flowers solitary on top of the stem, dark yellow, with small yellow-brown squares; 1 leaf bracts, apex not curly; 6 tepals, 2 rounds, 2.5~2.7 cm long, 3 obovate-oblong inside, about 1 cm wide, and 3 nearly oblong outside, about 6 mm wide. Nectary fossa slightly protruding or not prominent; 6 stamens, about half as long as perianth, anthers subbasal, filaments with or without papillae; Stigma 3-lobed, lobes short and spreading, 0.5~1 mm long. Capsule oblong, 1~1.5 cm long, 1~1.2 cm wide, with 6 ribs, the wings on the ribs very narrow, about 1 mm wide. It is flowering in June, and fruiting in August.

 Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.:flowering plant Ecological environment: the Dark Purple fritillaria grows on the grassland at an altitude between 3,200-4,500 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in the southwest and west-north area of China.

(3).Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.


 Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Gan Su Bèi Mǔ, or Gan Su Fritillary Bulb. Perennial herb, 20~40 cm high. Bulb conical, consisting of 2 scales, 6~13 mm in diameter. Leaves usually the lowest 2 opposite, upper 2~3 scattered; Leaf blade striate, 3~7 cm long, 3~4 mm wide, apex usually not curly. Single terminal, rare 2 flowers, pale yellow, with black-purple spots; 1 leaf bracts, apex slightly curly or uncurly; Perianth 2~3 cm long, 3 pieces 6~7 mm wide, nectary fossa is not obvious. Stamens are about half the length of the perianth. Filaments with papillae; Stigma segment length less than 1 mm. Capsule ribs with narrow wings ca. 1 mm wide. It is flowering from June to July, fruiting in August.

 Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The Fritillaria przewalskii Maxim grows in shrub or grassland at an altitude of 2,800 to 4,400 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in province Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan of China.

(4).Fritillaria delavayi Franch.


 Fritillaria delavayi Franch.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Suo Sha Bèi Mǔ. It is a perennial herb, 17~35 cm high. Bulbs oblong ovoid, consisting of 2~3 scales, 1~2 cm in diameter. Leaves alternate, 3~5 (including leaflike bracts) occurring more closely in the middle or upper part of the plant; Leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate-elliptic, 2~7 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, apex not curly. Single terminal, broadly bell-shaped, slightly pendulous, pale yellow, with reddish-brown spots or small squares; The perianth was 3.2~4.5 cm long and 1.2~1.5 cm wide, and the inner three pieces were slightly longer and wider than the outer three pieces. Stamens are about half as long as perianth, filaments do not have papillae; Stigma segment length is about 1 mm. The wings on the capsule ribs are about 1 mm wide, and the persistent perianth often more or less envelops the capsule. It is flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to September.

 Fritillaria delavayi Franch.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The Fritillaria delavayi Franch grows in the crevices of rocks on the flowing sand beach at an altitude of 3,800~4,700 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang of China.

 Characters of herbs: The dried bulb (of Lu Bei) is long cone-shaped similar to a horse tooth, pointed at the top, 1 ~ 2 cm high and about 1 ~ 1.5 cm in diameter. The appearance is white or yellowish white with dark yellow spots, forming tiger stripes, commonly known as "Hu Pi Bei(tiger skin bulbs)". The 2 scales of the out layer are equal in size, the top is cracked, and the base is pointed or round. The fracture surface is pink-white, powdery and firm. The herb has a weak smell, it has a mild taste. The herb which texture is solid and firm, white color is better.

(5).Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.


 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is also known as Kang Ding Bèi Mǔ, or Kang Ding Fritillary Bulb. Similar to Curled-Leaf Fritillary Bulb, but the plants and bulbs are often larger. Leaves in addition to the bottom 1~2 pairs for the opposite, most of the rest for scattered, apex does not curl. 1 foliate bracts, rarely 3. The flower has an apparent purple checkered spot.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don var. ecirrhosa Franch.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don var. Ecirrhosa Franch grows in the area at an altitude of 3,500~4,100 meters above sea level, in river forest or grassland. The plant mainly distributes in the Kangding area of Sichuan province, China.
 
Antitussives Herbs.

 Introduction: Antitussives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that stops coughing.
 
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  • 1.Introduction of Chuan Bei Mu:Tendrilleaf Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillarie Cirrhosae.

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