Introduction of Kuan Dong Hua:Flos Farfarae or Common Coltsfoot Flower.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Coltsfoot Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Tussilago farfara L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Common Coltsfoot Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Farfarae(Common Coltsfoot Flower).

Tussilago farfara:flowering plant 01 Pin Yin Name: Kuǎn Dōnɡ Huā.
 English Name: Common Coltsfoot Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Farfarae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, slight bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Farfarae is the dried flower-bud of Tussilago farfara L., used for treating a chronic cough with profuse expectoration and hemoptysis in consumptive diseases.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Farfarae (Common Coltsfoot Flower) is the dried flower-bud of Tussilago farfara L., it is a plant of the Tussilago L. genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, daisy family) of the Campanulales order. It is also known as Common Coltsfoot Flower, Kuǎn Dōnɡ Huā.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Flos Farfarae (Common Coltsfoot Flower) as the dried flower-bud of:(1). Tussilago farfara L. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Tussilago farfara L.

 Tussilago farfara L.:flowering plant 02 Botanical description: Tussilago farfara L is also known as Common Coltsfoot Flower. A perennial herbaceous plant. The rhizome is brown, amphitropal underground. Leaves grow from the near root part after the flowering period; Leaf blade is broadly cordate or reniform, 3~12 cm long, 4~14 cm wide, the apex is the orbicular or blunt point, and the edge has an undulate tip with the thickened black-brown sparse tooth, the upper surface has arachnoid hairs, the under surface has white panniform hairs; Palmate reticulated veins, 5~9 main veins, the petiole is 5~19 cm long, covered with white woolly hairs. Between winter and spring, several scapes sprout, 5~10 cm high, covered with white fuzz; Bracts are elliptical, lavender-brown (light purple-brown), over 10 bracts, closely interspersed on scape; Capitulum (flower head) is terminal, bright yellow, pendulous when not bloom; Involucre is campanulate (bell shape); Involucral bracts are in 1~2 layers, tomentose; Edge has ligulate flowers, female, in layers, the ovary is inferior, stigma is 2-lobed; Tubular flowers are in the center, hermaphrodite, the apex is 5-lobed, 5 stamens, anthers base is caudate (tail shape), stigma is capitate, usually sterile. Achene is long oblong, with 5~10 edges, and pappus is faint yellow (light yellow). Its flowering period is from January to February, the fruiting period is in April.

 Tussilago farfara L.:flowering plant 03 Ecological environment: The plant grows on sunny, warmer ditch sides. Resource distribution: The plant is mainly distributed in the north, northwest area, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild field along rivers or sandy land. The plant prefers a cool and humid environment, is tolerant to severe cold, and avoids high temperatures, and drought. The suitable temperature for growth is 15~25 °C (Celsius, or 59~77 degrees Fahrenheit), better choose a mountain area or shady slopes for planting, it can be planted intercropping with fruit trees on plain fields. Better choose soil rich in humus, or subacid sandy loam.

 Tussilago farfara L.:herb photo Characters of herbs: The capitulum (flower head) not bloomed is irregular short rod-shaped, solitary, or 2~3 inflorescences base connate, commonly known as "successive three flowers", 1~2.5 cm long. The upper end is thicker, the lower end is tapered or with short stalks, and there are many fish-scale bracts on the out surface; The out surface of bracts is reddish purple (reddish violet) or pale red, and the inner surface is densely covered with white cottony villi. The herb is light. After tearing, white filamentous woolly hairs are visible; the ligulate flower and tubular flower are thin and small, about 2 mm long. The herb smells fragrant, tastes slightly bitter, and pungent, with viscosity; Chewing a while the herb turns to flocculence (cottony). The herb of better grade is big, fat and thick, purple, with a short pedicle (flower stalk). The woody old stalk and already bloomed are not suitable for medicinal use.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Effect on respiratory system; ②.Effect on the circulatory system.

 Medicinal efficacy: Moistening lung to lower Qi, relieving cough, and reducing sputum, indicated for dyspnea and cough with excessive sputum, over-strained cough and hemoptysis (coughing blood), etc.

 Administration of Flos Farfarae (Kuǎn Dōnɡ Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Farfarae (Kuǎn Dōnɡ Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.0.5~3 qian (about 1.5~9 grams); ③.3~10 grams, water decoction; Prepare to paste or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick.

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