Introduction of Pi Pa Ye:Folium Eriobotryae or Loquat Leaf.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Loquat Leaf, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Loquat Leaf, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Folium Eriobotryae(Loquat Leaf).

herb pieces of Loquat Leaf Pin Yin Name: Pí Pá Yè.
 English Name: Loquat Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Eriobotryae.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Folium Eriobotryae is the dried leaf of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., used (1).to clear the lung and resolve phlegm for stopping coughing in cases of lung heat, and (2).to stop vomiting due to stomach heat. The herb is commonly known as Folium Eriobotryae, Loquat Leaf, Pí Pá Yè.

 Botanical source: The herb Folium Eriobotryae (Loquat Leaf) is the dried leaf of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., it is a plant of the Eriobotrya Lindl. Genus, the Rosaceae family (rose family) of the Rosales order. It is also known as Loquat Leaf or Pí Pá Yè.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Folium Eriobotryae (Loquat Leaf) as the dried leaf of:(1). Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

 several fruits growing on tree of Eriobotrya japonica Thunb.Lindl. Botanical description: Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl is also known as Mespilus japonica Thunb. It is also known as the loquat tree. Evergreen small trees, the small tree grows up to 10 meters tall. Branchlets are stout, tawny (yellowish-brown), and densely covered with rust-coloured (auburn) or taupe brown fluff. The leaf is coriaceous; petioles are short or subsessile, 6~10 mm long, with taupe brown fluff; stipules are subulate, piliferous; leaf blades are lanceolate, oblanceolate, obovate or oblong, 12~30 cm long, 3~9 cm wide, the apex is pointed or acuminate, the base is cuneate or acuminate and turns to petiole, the upper edge is sparsely serrate, the upper surface is bright and wrinkled, undersurface and petiole are densely covered with taupe brown (grayish-brown) fluff, lateral veins are in 11~21 pairs.

 loquat tree,leaves and mature fruits Panicles are terminal, the peduncle and pedicle are densely covered with rust-colored (auburn) fluff; the flower is 1.2~2 cm in diameter; the calyx tube is tazza shape (shallow cyathiform), the sepals are triangular-ovate, the outer surface is covered with rust-colored (auburn) villi; the petals are white, oblong or ovate, 5~9 mm long, 4~6 mm wide, the base is unguiform (claw-shaped), with rust-colored fluff; 20 stamens, 5 styles, distinct, stigma is capitate, glabrous.

 Fruits are globose (spherical) or oblong, 3~5 cm in diameter, yellow or orange; 1~5 seeds, globose or oblate, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, brown, glossy, spermoderm (seed coat) is chartaceous (papery). Its flowering period is from October to December, and the fruiting period is from May to June.

 five mature berries growing on a branch of Eriobotrya japonica Thunb.Lindl. Ecological environment: The tree is usually planted at the edge of the village, on flat land, or slope sides. Resources distribution: the tree is mainly distributed in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the southwest, the central and south areas of China, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The tree prefers a warm and humid environment, and it can grow in an area with an annual average temperature above 12–15 °C (Celsius, or 53.6–59 degrees Fahrenheit), and annual precipitation above 1,000 mm. The tree has no strict requirements in soil, but it is better to choose a field with deep and thick soil layers, humus-rich sandy loam with good drainage for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The leaves are oblong or obovate, 12–30 cm long, and 3–9 cm wide. The apex is pointed, the base is cuneate, the upper edge is sparsely serrated, and the base is entire. The upper surface is grayish green, yellowish-brown or reddish-brown, glossy, and the undersurface is light gray or brownish green, densely covered with yellow fuzz. The main veins on the undersurface are prominently protuberant, and the lateral veins are pinnate. The petiole is extremely short and covered with brown fuzz. The texture of the leaf is coriaceous and fragile, easily broken. The herb has a slight smell, a slightly bitter taste. The herb of a better grade is intact (complete) and sage green (grayish green).

 Pharmacological actions: ①.effect of relieving cough; ②.relieving asthma; ③.removing phlegm slightly; ④.inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro; ⑤.hypoglycemic action; ⑥.anticancer effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear lung and harmonizing stomach, downbear Qi (sending down abnormally ascending) and reduce phlegm, indicated for the treatment of lung heat and sputum cough, cough blood, hemorrhinia, heat in stomach and vomiting.

 Administration of Folium Eriobotryae (Pí Pá Yè): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Folium Eriobotryae (Pí Pá Yè)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 6~9 grams; ②.1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams, fresh herb 0.5~1 liang, about 15~30 grams); ③.9~15 grams,big dosage could be up to 30 grams,fresh herb 15~30 grams;prepare to paste, prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.




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