Introduction of Bai Bu:Radix Stemonae or Stemona Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Stemona Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Stemona sessilifolia(Miq.) Miq., ②.Stemona japonica(BL.) Miq., ③.Stemona tuberosa Lour., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plants, the features of the herb Stemona Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Stemonae(Stemona Root).

Stemona sessilifolia:drawing of plant and root Pin Yin Name: Bǎi Bù.
 English Name: Stemona Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Stemonae.
 Property and flavor: slight warm, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Stemonae is the steamed and dried tuberous root of Stemona sessilifolia(Miq.) Miq., Stemona japonica(BL.) Miq.r Stemona tuberosa Lour.(family Stemonaceae), used to moisten the lung and relieve acute and chronic cough, and externally to kill trichomonads and lice.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Stemonae(Stemona Root) is the steamed and dried tuberous root of ①.Stemona sessilifolia(Miq.) Miq., or ②.Stemona japonica(BL.) Miq., or ③.Stemona tuberosa Lour.(family Stemonaceae), they are plants of the Stemona Lour. Genus, the Stemonaceae family of the Pandanales order.

(1).Stemona sessilifolia(Miq.) Miq.


 Stemona sessilifolia Miq.:growing plant Botanical description: The Stemona sessilifolia(Miq.) Miq., is a plant of the Stemonaceae family and Stemona Lour. Genus, it is commonly known as "Stemona sessilifolia", or "Zhi Li Bai Bu". Subshrub. Root spindly, ca. 1 cm thick. Stem erect, 30~60 cm high, unbranched, with slender longitudes. Leaves thinly leathery, usually 3~4 per whorl, rarely 5 or 2, ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 3.5~6 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, apical short pointed or acute, base cuneate, with short or nearly sessile. Flowers single axillary, usually from the stem of the lower scale axils; Scales lanceolate, ca. 8 mm long; Flower stalk extending outward, ca. 1 cm long, medium upper with joint; Flowers upward sloping or erect; Tepals 1~1.5 cm long, 2~3 mm wide, pale green; Stamens purplish red; Filaments short; Anthers are about 3.5 mm long, and their apical appendages are equal to or slightly shorter than the anthers, and the distance extension is about twice as long as the anthers. Ovary triangular-ovoid.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows in thickets on sunny slopes or under bamboo forests. It mainly distributes in the east, the Hanjiang river area, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. 

 Stemona Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root tuber is spindle-shaped, with slender upper ends. Some lower ends are long-tailed curving shape, with a length of 5~17 cm and a diameter of 0.5~1 cm. The surface is yellowish white or light khaki, with irregular deep longitudinal grooves and occasional horizontal wrinkles. The texture of the herb is fragile, tough and soft after being affected with damp, the fracture surface is flat, horny or corneous, light yellowish brown or yellowish white, the cortex is broad, the stele is small flat. The herb has mild smell, it tastes sweet and bitter. The herb which is thick, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antibacterial effect:In vitro test showed that Stemona Root decoctions and Stemona Root alcoholic extracts have inhibitory effects on many pathogenic bacteria, such as pneumococcus, Streptococcus haemolyticus type B, meningococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, and Bacillus dysenteriae; ②.Insecticidal effect:water saps and ethanol saps of Stemona japonica and other varieties have the killing effect on larvae of mosquito and fly, head lice, agricultural lice, and bedbugs.

 Medicinal efficacy: Moistening lung and relieve cough, insect disinfestation, indicated for bronchocephalitis(whooping cough), phthisis and cough(pulmonary tuberculosis and cough), pinworm, Trichomonas vaginalis, head lice, and scabies.

 Administration of Radix Stemonae(Bǎi Bù): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Stemonae(Bǎi Bù)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams); ③.3~10 grams, water decoction; soaking in wine or grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:wash with water decoction or grinded into fine powder and apply stick.

(2).Stemona japonica(Bl.) Miq.


 Stemona japonica Bl.Miq.:drawing of plant and root Botanical description: The Stemona japonica(Bl.) Miq., is a plant of the Stemonaceae family and Stemona Lour. Genus, it is commonly known as "Stemona japonica(Bl.) Miq.", or "Wan Sheng Bai Bu(Sprawl Stemona)". Herbs perennial, 60~90 cm high, all smooth and glabrous. Root fleshy, usually spindly, several to dozens clustered. Vine - shaped upper stem with longitudinal veins. Leaves usually rotate in four pieces; Ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3~9 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, entire or microwave, base rounded or nearly truncate, occasionally shallow-cordate, midrib 5~9. Petiole linear, 1.5~2.5 cm long. Pedicel filamentous, 1.5~2.5 cm long, its base adherent to leaf midvein, each stalk usually solitary 1 flower; 4 perianths, pale green, ovate-lanceolate to ovate; 4 stamens, purple, filaments short, anthers introverted, linear, apical with a linear appendage; Ovary ovoid, very small, without style. Capsule broadly ovate and flattened; Inside the long oval seed number. It is flowering in May, fruiting in July.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows under mountain forests or bamboo forests. It mainly distributes in the east, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, the middle reaches are of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root tuber is narrow and thin at both ends, with pale gray surface, irregular wrinkles and transverse wrinkles. It tastes bitter. The herb which is thick, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, is better.

(3).Stemona tuberosa Lour.


 Stemona tuberosa Lour.:drawing of plant and root 02 Botanical description: The Stemona tuberosa Lour., is a plant of the Stemonaceae family and Stemona Lour. Genus, it is commonly known as "Stemona sessilifolia", or "Dui Ye Bai Bu". Perennial climbing herbs up to 5 meters high. Entangle the stem. Leaves usually opposite, broadly ovate, 8~30 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, base shallow-cordate, entire or microwave, 7~11 veins. Petiole length 4~6 cm. Take the altar; Flowers with a lanceolate bract; 4 perianth segments, lanceolate, yellowish green, with purple veins. Capsule obovate and flat. It is flowering from May to June; fruiting from July to August.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows under the sunny bush. It mainly distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, southeast coastal area, and southwest area of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root tuber is spindle-shaped or elongated, 8~24 cm long and 0.8~2 cm in diameter. The surface is light yellowish brown to grayish brown, with shallow longitudinal wrinkles or irregular longitudinal grooves. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, the fracture surface is yellow-white to dark brown, large stele, the pith is off-white, the herb tastes bitter. The herb which is thick, the texture of the herb is solid and firm, is better.
 
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 Introduction: Antitussives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that stops coughing.
 
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  • 1.Introduction of Bai Bu:Radix Stemonae or Stemona Root.

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