Introduction of Bai Qian:Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii or Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Antitussives Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon02 Introduction: Antitussives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that stops coughing.

 
Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii(Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome).

Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Bái Qián.
 English Name: Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii.
 Property and flavor: slight warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii is the dried rhizome and root of Cynanchum stauntonii (Decne.) Schltr.ex Levl. Or Cynanchum glaucescens(Decne.) Hand.-Mazz.(family Asclepiadaceae), used for the treatment of cough and dyspnea with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii, Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome, Bái Qián.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii(Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome) is the dried rhizome and root of Cynanchum stauntonii (Decne.) Schltr.ex Levl. Or Cynanchum glaucescens(Decne.) Hand.-Mazz., they are plants of the Asclepiadaceae family of the Contortae order. It is also known as Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome, Glaucescent Swallowwort Rhizome, Rhizome of Willowleaf Swallowwort, Rhizome of Glaucescent Swallowwort, or Bái Qián.

 Cynanchum stauntoni Decne.Schltr.Ex Levl.:plant and leaves Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii(Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome) as the dried rhizome and root of:(1). Cynanchum stauntoni(Decne.) Schltr. Ex Levl., or (2). Cynanchum glaucescens(Decne.) Hand. Mazz. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Cynanchum stauntoni(Decne.) Schltr. Ex Levl.


 Botanical description: It is also known as water willow, big crane gourd, willow-leaf Cynanchum, Bai Qian. Herbs perennial. The height is 30~60 cm. Root prostrate. Stem erect, simple, lower lignified. Leaves opposite, shortly stipitate; Leaf blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 3~8 cm long, 3~8 mm wide, apex acuminate, base acuminate, margin reversed; Lower leaves shorter and wider; The leaves at the top become shorter and narrower. Inflorescences axillary, pedicels 8~15 mm long, most bracteoles inserted above middle; Calyx green, 5-lobed, lobes ovate-lanceolate; Corolla purple, 5-lobed, lobes linear, ca. 5 mm long, base short tubular; 5 coronas, upper part around apex of stamen, shorter than stamen; 5 stamens, with pistil synthetic stamen column, 2 anthers; 1 pistil, ovary superior, 2 carpels nearly separate, 2 styles, joined at apex to form a flat-disk stigma. Follicles angular, ca. 7 cm long. Seeds numerous, apex with fine white tomentose. It is flowering in June, fruiting in October.

 Cynanchum stauntoni Decne.Schltr.Ex Levl.:growing plant Ecological environment: The plant grows on stream flats, river bank moraines, or damp places in valleys and is half-submerged in water. It mainly distributes in the Yangtze River area and Zhujiang river area, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on the beach, on the sand by the river or in the damp places in the valley.

 Characters of herbs: Stems and roots dry, twisted and united. The rhizome is tubular, slender and jointed, slightly curved, about 4~15 cm long, 1.5~5 mm in diameter, the surface is pale yellow to yellowish-brown, with fine longitudinal wrinkles, the segment is expanded, often divided, and dense fibrous root, the top often remains grayish-green or purple-brown rhizome; It is hard and brittle, easily broken, round in section, hollow or membranous. The root is slender and curved, long about 1~10 centimeters, most show hair beard shape, surface brown or purplish brown, have a fine wrinkle, have a majority small fibrous root. Quality firm brittle, easy to break, section class white, expanding mirror visible center wood. Weak smells, sweet taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Effect on respiratory system; ②.Anti-inflammatory effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Downbear Qi(sending down abnormally ascending), dissolving phlegm, relieving cough, indicated for treatment of cough with excessive phlegm accumulation of lung Qi, chest fullness and dyspnea with rapid respiration.

 Administration of Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii(Bái Qián): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii(Bái Qián)
TCM Books: Internally:3~10 grams(CP), or 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams,DCTM), or 3~10 grams(CHMM), water decoction.

(2).Cynanchum glaucescens(Decne.) Hand. Mazz.


 Cynanchum glaucescens Decne.Hand.Mazz.:plant and leaves Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yuan Hua Ye Bai Qian, perennial herb, 25 ~ 40 cm tall. Rhizome prostrate, node tufted most fibrous roots. Stem erect, young branches are brown hairy, old branches often residual part of the hairy. Leaves opposite, scarcely sessile; Leaf blade elliptic, 2.5~5 cm long, 0.8~1.5 cm wide, apex rounded or acute, base cuneate, entire. Cymose axillary; Calyx yellow-green, nearly completely lobed, lobes ovate; Corolla yellow-white, deeply 5-lobed, lobes ovoid; 5 coronas, yellow-green, fleshy, tuberculate, superventral around the apex of the pistil, several times as long as the pistil; 5 stamens, room covering apex of stamen column; Ovary superior, consisting of 2 nearly detached carpels, two styles apically joined to form a hypertrophic plate-like stigma. 1~2 Follicles, narrowly ovoid, ca. 4.5 cm long. Seeds numerous, apex with fine white tomentose. It is flowering in August, its fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The growth environment and distribution are the same as that of willows. Both of them often grow together.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on the beach, on the sand by the river or in the damp places in the valley.

 Characters of herbs: Dry roots and rhizomes, similar in shape to the front of the willow leaf, but the buds on the rhizome and the nodes on the ground are opposite and conspicuous. The roots are long and thick, about 5~20 cm long, about 0.5~1 mm in diameter. Color relatively shallow, often for grayish-yellow. Weak smells, slightly sweet taste.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Qian:Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii or Willowleaf Swallowwort Rhizome.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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