Introduction of Bing Pian:Borneol or Borneolum.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Aromatic Stimulants Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon11 Introduction: Aromatic Stimulants Herbs:also known as aromatic orifice-opening herbs, an agent or substance, fragrant in flavor, with a resuscitating effect, used for emergency treatment of impairment or loss of consciousness, also known as stimulant or orifice-opening herbs.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 11 Introduction: The Aromatic Stimulants Herbs. are known including:, , , .

 ✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are Totally [4] kinds of common TCM herbs, [6] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Aromatic Stimulants Herbs. are briefly introduced separately:

 
Borneolum(Borneol).

Borneolum Pin Yin Name: Bīnɡ Piàn.
 English Name: Borneol.
 Latin Name: Borneolum.
 Property and flavor: slight cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Borneolum is a crystalline organic compound obtained synthetically or from Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f., used (1).as an aromatic stimulant for treating loss of consciousness and convulsion due to high fever, and (2).topically to clear heat and alleviate pain for treating pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, and stomatitis. The herb is commonly known as Borneolum, Borneol, Bīnɡ Piàn. The synthetically obtained borneolum is normally known as Borneolum Syntheticum, the borneolum obtained from Cinnamomum camphora is normally known as Natural Borneolum.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Borneolum(Borneol) as Borneolum Syntheticum or Blumea camphor. The Borneolum Syntheticum was synthesized from turpentine and camphor by chemical method. Blumea camphor is the crystallization of fresh leaves of the species (1). Blumea balsamifera DC, which is distilled and cooled by steam. It is a plant of the Blumea genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Borneolum(Borneol) as the processed products from the resins of the species (2). Cinnamomum camphora (L.) presl. It is a plant of the Cinnamomum genus, the Lauraceae family of the Laurales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Blumea balsamifera DC. (1).Blumea balsamifera DC.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Dà Fēng ài. Large herbs or shrubs annual or perennial, sometimes arboreal, densely yellow-white tomentose, up to 3 m, aromatic. Stem erect, lignified, much-branched, bluish-white. Leaves alternate, short or sessile. Leaf-blade elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 12~24 cm long, 4~10 cm wide, apex acute, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin irregularly serrate, often at base transverse spreading pinnate, above green pubescent, below densely silver-white tomentose. Flowering in April to May, capitate small, about 1 cm in diameter, arranged into a corymbose; Involucral bracts lanceolate, several rounds, imbricate, outer wheel short, inner wheel longer; Flower yellow, edge flower is female, majority, filamentous, tip has fine tooth; Bisexual flowers in the center, corolla tubular, margin 5-lobed; 5 stamens, protruding from tube orifice; Stigma 2-lobed, ovary inferior. Achene 10 arrowed, tomentose, apex with pale white-crested 1 whorl.

 Blumea balsamifera DC. Ecological Environment: The plant is cultivated or grows in the wild field. The plant often grows on the edge of the garden, roadside, or hillside bushes. It mainly distributes in the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: It prefers to tropical and subtropical climate, drought tolerance and not tolerant cold. The soil should be fertile and sunny; No matter clay loam, sandy loam or calcareous soil it can grow well.

 Blumea balsamifera DC. Characters of herbs: This herb is colorless transparent or white translucent flake crisp crystal; Fresh, pungent and cool; Volatile, igniting with dense smoke and a luminous flame. This herb is soluble in ethanol, chloroform or ether, but almost insoluble in water. The melting point should be 205~210 ℃

 Cinnamomum camphora L.presl. (2).Cinnamomum camphora (L.) presl.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Zhāng or Zhāng Shù. Large evergreen trees, up to 30 meters high, up to 3 meters in diameter, wide ovate crown; Camphor smell in branches, leaves, and wood; Bark yellowish-brown with irregular longitudinal cracks. Apex buds broadly ovate or orbicular, scales broadly ovate or suborbicular, outside slightly sericulate.

 Branches cylindrical, pale brown, glabrous. Leaves alternate, elliptic oval, 6~12 cm long, 2.5~5.5 cm wide, apex acute, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, margin entire, RuanGuZhi, it is sometimes microwaved, the green or yellow-green, luster, yellow-green or under the sage green, dark, glabrous or slightly pilose on was slightly below, with from basal veins 3, sometimes the transition to the base doesn't have five veins, midrib on both sides, each side has an upper lateral veins (7) of article 1~5. There are a few branches on the side of basal lateral veins toward the leaf margin. There are obvious glandular fossae on the upper part of lateral veins and branch vein axils, and the fossae are often pilose. Petiole slender, 2~3 cm long, abaxially concave and convex, glabrous.

 Cinnamomum camphora L.presl. Flowers: panicles axillary, 3.5~7 cm long, pedicellate, total pedicels 2.5~4.5 cm long, glabrous with every order axis or whitish to russet puberulent, often especially at nodes when hairy. Flowers greenish-white or yellowish, ca. 3 mm long; Pedicels 1~2 mm long, glabrous. Perianth glabrous or puberulent, inner surface densely pubescent, perianth tube obconical, ca. 1 mm long, perianth lobes elliptic, ca. 2 mm long. 9 stamens fertile, ca. 2 mm, filaments pubescent. 3 stamens, located in the innermost wheel, arrowhead-shaped, ca. 1 mm long, pubescent. Ovary globose, ca. 1 mm long, glabrous, style ca. 1 mm long.

 Fruit: fruit ovoid or subglobose, 6~8 mm in diameter, purplish-black; Fruit hypanthium, ca. 5 mm long, apex truncated, up to 4 mm wide, base ca. 1 mm wide, longitudinally furrowed.

 Fruiting period: the plant is flowering from April to May, fruiting from August to November.

 Cinnamomum camphora L.presl. Ecological Environment: The plant often grows in mountain slopes or gullies. It likes slightly moisten the soil, rich humus black soil, or slightly acidic to neutral sandy loam. To reproduce naturally or by transplanting seeds. It mainly distributes in the south and southwest provinces of China. The plant is also introduced and cultivated in other countries.

 Characters of herbs: Translucent block, flake or granular crystals, 1~7 mm in diameter, about 1 mm in thickness, white to light grayish brown. Air fragrance, flavor cool, chewing slowly melt. After the micro sublimation, the crystal is rod-shaped or polygonal. When burning, there is no black smoke or slight black smoke. The herb which is large and thin, white color, quality loose, pure smell and scent is better.

 Medicinal efficacy: Free all the orifice, open orifice and inducing resuscitation, detumescence and analgesic(reduce swelling and relieve pain), clear heat and analgesic, dissipate stagnated fire, eliminate nebula and improving eyesight. It is indicated for coma of pyrexia(unconsciousness of fever), convulsion, convulsive epilepsy and phlegm phlegmatic coma, apoplexia and phlegm syncope(coma due to blocking of the respiratory system), apoplexia and lockjaw, Qi depression and sudden syncope(obstruction of the circulation of vital energy), attacked by pestilent factors and coma, chest pain and heartache, red eyes, sores of the mouth, sore throat(swelling and pain in throat), pharyngitis(throat obstruction), purulent discharge of the ear canal, deafness with Qi stagnation, tympanitis(otitis media), carbuncle, hemorrhoids, nebula(slight corneal opacity), oxyuriasis(oxyuria, or enterobiasis), etc.

 Administration of Borneolum(Bīnɡ Piàn): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Borneolum(Bīnɡ Piàn)
TCM Books: Natural Borneolum: Internally:0.3~0.9 grams, prepare to pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, grinded into a fine powder, point application and stick at affected area; Borneolum Syntheticum:internally:0.15~0.3 grams, prepare to pill, powder. Externally: grinded into a fine powder, point application and stick at the affected area.(CP). Internally:prepare to pill, powder,0.5~1 fen(about 0.15~0.3 grams). Externally: grinded into powder, sprinkle or apply stick(DCTM).
 Contraindications,Precautions and Cautions in attention: Cautiously use during pregnancy, avoid using in case of Qi deficiency.


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bing Pian:Borneol or Borneolum.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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