✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Digestives and Evacuants.
Introduction: Herbs Digestives and Evacuants: also known as digestant herbs, an agent or substance that aids digestion to eliminate accumulated undigested food, also known as digestant and evacuant herbs.
✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are Totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Digestives and Evacuants are briefly introduced separately:
Fructus Crataegi(Hawthorn Fruit).
Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Crataegi is the dried ripe fruit of Large Chinese Hawthorn, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E. Br.or Chinese Hawthorn, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.(family Rosaceae), used to improve digestion and relieve food stagnation for the treatment of dyspepsia and stagnation of fatty food, also to activate blood flow for treating amenorrhea and postpartum abdominal pain due to blood stasis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Crataegi, Hawthorn Fruit, Shān Zhā.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Hawthorn Fruit(Shan Zha) as the dry ripen fruit of the Rosaceae(the rose family) family Crataegus genus plant species (1). Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var.major N.E. Br., or (2). Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var.major N.E.Br.: The Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var.major N.E. Brown., is a plant of the Rosaceae(the rose family) family and Crataegus genus, is commonly known as "Mountain Red", "mountain hawthorn", or "Shan Li Hong", deciduous tree, up to 6 meters. Prickles long 1~2 cm, or no thorns. Leaves alternate; petiole 2~6 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate or triangular ovoid dilute rhombic-ovate, 6~12 cm long, 5~8 cm wide, 2~4 pairs of pinnately lobes, apex acuminate, the base of a wide wedge, Glossy above, pubescent below veins, irregularly heavy serrated edges. Corolla campanulate, 5-toothed; Corolla white, ca. 1.5 cm in diameter, 5 petals, obovate or suborbicular; stamens ca. 20, anthers pink; 1 pistil, ovary Lower, 5 rooms, 5 styles. Pear nearly spherical, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, dark red, with yellowish-white spots, the sepals fall off late, leaving a round deep pits apex; 3～5 small nucleus, outward slightly edge, inward Smooth side. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting in October.
The Mountain red is a deciduous tree of the Rosaceae family, 6~8 meters high, is a fruit tree, but also ornamental plants. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, margin pinnately 5~9-lobed, serrate, veins pubescent. Umbels with small flowers 10~12 flowers, white or pink, flowering in May, fruiting from August to October, pear shape nearly spherical, about 2 cm in diameter, dark red skin, and light brown spots.
The Mountain red is a famous fruit tree in China. It has more than 3,000 years of cultivation history. Due to its strong adaptability, fewer pests and diseases and no fine management, it has been cultivated in all parts of the country, while the cultivation area in the north is larger than the south.
The Mountain red is resistant to cold, strong vitality, began to fruit in 4~5 years after cultivation, resulting in countless spherical, pear-shaped small fruit, thick red skin, so that the green hills covered with red bright red fruit, very beautiful, alias "red fruit". The fruit is also known as hawthorn.
Ecological environment: The Crataeguspinnatifida Bunge var.major N.E. Brown., grows in valleys, valleys, or shrubs at the area with altitude 100~1,500 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north area, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.
Trait identification: Fruit subglobose, 1~2.5 cm in diameter. Surface is bright red to purplish red, glossy, covered with grayish spots, apex with persistent calyx, base with stalk remnants. Surface often processed into a longitudinal section or transverse section, 2~8 mm thick, more curly wrinkles uneven. Pulp thick, dark yellow to light brown, cut surface visible light yellow seeds 3~5, some have fallen off. Qualitative hard. Slight fragrant, sour and sweet taste. The herb which is large, red skin and thick pulp is better.
(2).Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge.: The Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge., is a plant of the Rosaceae(the rose family) family and Crataegus genus, it is commonly known as "Hawthorn Tree", or "Shan Zha", the species is very similar to the Mountain red, only the fruit shape is small, diameter 1.5 cm; leaf is also smaller, and split deeper. Deciduous trees, rough bark, dark gray or taupe; spines ca. 1~2 cm, sometimes free of thorns; branchlets cylindrical, then branches purple-brown, glabrous or nearly glabrous, sparse lenticels, old branch grayish-brown Winter bud triangular-ovate, apex obtuse, glabrous, purple.
Leaf-blade broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, dilute rhombic-ovate, 5~10 cm long, 4~7.5 cm wide, apex shortly acuminate, base truncate to broadly cuneate, usually 3~5 pinnates on each side deep lobes, lobes ovate-lanceolate or banded, apex short acuminate, margin sparsely irregular irregularly serrated, dark green and glossy above, sparsely pubescent below veins or spiny hairs in vein axils, lateral veins 6~10 pairs, some reaching apex of lobes, others reaching lobes divided; petiole 2~6 cm, glabrous; stipules herbaceous, sickle-shaped, margin serrate.
Corymbs with many flowers, 4~6 cm in diam., Pedicel and pedicel both pubescent, abscission, reduced, pedicel 4~7 mm; bracts membranous, linear-lanceolate, ca. 6~8 mm, apex acuminate, margin glabrous, caducous; flowers ca. 1.5 cm; calyx tube campanulate, 4~5 mm long, outside densely gray-white pilose; sepals triangular-ovate to lanceolate, apex gradually Apical, entire, ca. as long as calyx tube, glabrous on both inner and outer surfaces, or bearded on top of inner surface; petals obovate or subrounded, 7~8 mm long, 5~6 mm wide, 20 stamens, Shorter than petals, anthers pink; 3~5 styles, base pubescent, stigma capitate.
Fruit nearly spherical or pear-shaped, diameter 1~1.5 cm, dark red, light-colored spots; 3~5 small nucleus, the outer edge of a slight rib, both sides of the inner are smooth; sepals off late, leaving a deep dome-shaped. Its flowering period is from May to June, the fruiting period is from September to October.
Ecological environment: The Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge., grows in valleys, or shrubs at the area with an altitude of 100~1,500 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north, northwest, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.
Trait identification: Fruit globose, 1~1.5 cm in diameter. Surface deep red, speckled, apex with persistent calyx, base with slender stalk. Qualitative hard. Slight fragrant, sour and astringent taste. The herb which is in a uniform, brown-red, pulp thick is better.
Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Crataegi Preparatus is hawthorn fruit stir-baked to a brown color, used to improve digestion and relieve food stagnation for the treatment of dyspepsia and stagnation of fatty food. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Crataegi Preparatus, Charred Hawthorn Fruit, Jiāo Shān Zhā.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Crataegi Preparatus(Charred Hawthorn Fruit) as the stir-baked hawthorn fruit. The Hawthorn Fruit botanical origins was introduced in the above entry "Fructus Crataegi(Hawthorn Fruit)".