Introduction of Di Long:Earthworm or Lumbricus.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind.

 TCM Herbs Icon13 Introduction: Herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind: also known as liver-pacifying and wind-extinguishing herb, an agent or substance herbs that pacifies the liver, suppresses exuberant Yang, extinguishes endogenous wind and controls spasms or tremors.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 13 Introduction: The herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind are known including:, , , , , , ,.

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [8] kinds of common TCM herbs, [3] kinds of related plant species, [4] kinds of related insects species, [10] kinds of related animal species, [1] kind of related minerals, are recorded in this category. These herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind are briefly introduced separately:


Earthworm Pin Yin Name: Dì Lónɡ.
 English Name: Earthworm.
 Latin Name: Lumbricus.
 Property and flavor: cold nature, tastes salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Lumbricus is the dried body of Pheretima aspergillum(Perrier) or Allolobophora caliginosa(Savigny)trapezoides(Ant.Duges)(family Megascolecidae), used to clear heat, extinguish wind, unblock collateral meridians, relieve asthma and induce diuresis, for the treatment of convulsions due to high fever, rheumatalgia, hemiplegia, bronchial asthma and accumulated heat in the bladder with dysuria. The herb is commonly known as Lumbricus, Earthworm, Pheretima, Dì Lónɡ.

 Source: The official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Lumbricus(Earthworm) as the dried body of the species (1). Pheretima aspergillum(E.Perrier)., (2). Pheretima vulgaris Chen., (3). Pheretima guillelmi(Michaelsen)., (4). Pheretima pectinifera Michaelsen. They are small animals of the Pheretima genus, the Megscolecide family of the Opisthopora order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Pheretima aspergillum E.Perrier (1).Pheretima aspergillum(E.Perrier).:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Cān Huán Máo Yǐn. It is 115~375 mm long and 6~12 mm wide. The dorsal hole begins at the 11/12 internode. 3 bands, glabrous and setae. Girdle bristles thick and hard at the front, black at the end, widely spaced, and abaxially. 30~34 (Ⅷ) between the spermatheca hole, 28~30 between the male hole, hole in male glands near a dense, 6~7 per side. The male hole is on the ventral setae of node, the outer edge is surrounded by shallow pleats, the inner setae is uplift, the front, and back sides have horizontal rows (one or two rows) of small mastoid processes, 10~20 on each side. The pore of the seminal vesicle is 2 pairs, located on an oval protrusion between 7/8 and 8/9, accounting for about 5/11 of the circumstantial node. The ventral side of the foramen has horizontal rows (one or two rows) of mastoid processes, about 10 of which are not present at a distance from the foramen. Diaphragm 8/9, 9/10 missing. The cecum is simple or ventral with dentate sacs. The seminal vesicles are bag-shaped, with short tubules and short blind tubules. Inside 2/3 micro-bend number turns, for the seminal vesicle. Each accessory gonad is massive, with a granular surface, and each has a group of thick cords connecting the mastoid process. The back is purplish gray, slightly lighter at the back, with white setae.

 Pheretima aspergillum E.Perrier Earthworms like warm, very sensitive to temperature, according to the temperature or ground temperature will adjust the depth in the soil; Generally prefers to live in moist, loose and fertile soil, but the humidity will make soil pores blocked, earthworms breathe difficult, easy to suffocate. Earthworms climb out of the ground after a common shower. The earthworm is nocturnal sex animal, very sensitive to light, like dark, afraid of strong light, often escape the illumination of intense sunshine, ultraviolet ray, but not afraid of red light, incline to weak light. Generally at dusk climb out of the ground to feed, mating, return in early morning. Prefer quiet, afraid of noise or vibration. The earthworm has a strong ability to regenerate when part of the body damage or cut off can be regenerated. The life span is 1~3 years.

 Pheretima aspergillum E.Perrier Ecological environment: The earthworm lives in moist and loose soil, slow movement. It feeds on humus-rich organic matter. It grows in moist, loose soil. This species distributes in the Zhujiang river area and other areas of China. It could be used for the treatment of high fever faint, convulsion, joint pain, numbness, urine edema, hypertension, and other diseases.

 Characters of herbs: Long thin strip, curved, margin slightly rolled, 15~20 cm long, 1~2 cm wide. All with links, back brown to purple-gray, belly light yellow-brown; The 14th~16th segment is the reproductive belt, which is called "white neck". The body front end is slightly pointed, the tail end blunt circle, setae ring rough and hard, color slightly shallow. The male genital foramen is on the apical process of the ventral setae of the 18th segment, the outer edge is surrounded by shallow folds, the inner setae is raised, and the front two sides have horizontal rows (one or two rows) of small mastoid processes, with 10~20 on each side. The spermatic vesicle bore is 2 pairs, located on an oval protuberant between 7/8 and 8/9, accounting for about 5/11 around the node. Light, slightly leathery, not easily broken. Smell fishy, slightly salty taste.

 Pheretima vulgaris Chen. (2).Pheretima vulgaris Chen.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Tōng Sú Huán Máo Yǐn. The species is similar in size, color, and internal structure to that of Pheretima guillelmi. The seminal vesicles were deep and broad only, and both the anterior and posterior margins were swollen. The male mating cavity is also deep and wide, the inner wall is more wrinkled, with 3 flat papillae, located in the bottom of the cavity, one of the processes is where the male hole is, can all turnout.

 Pheretima vulgaris Chen. Ecological environment: It lives in moist and organic places. This species distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, north area coastal regions, and other areas of China.

 Pheretima vulgaris Chen. Characters of herbs: 8~15 cm long, 0.5~1.5 cm wide. All with links, brown to tan back, belly light yellow-brown; Spermatophore 3 pairs, 6/7 to 8/9 links. The 14th~16th segment is the reproductive zone, which is brighter. Segment 18 has a pair of the male genital foramen. The male mating cavity of the common ringworm can be all turned out, like cauliflower or penile. The male mating cavity of William's ringworm is like a longitudinal crack. The medial side of the male reproductive foramen of the ctenopecus has 1 or more papillae.

 Pheretima guillelmi Michaelsen. (3).Pheretima guillelmi(Michaelsen).:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Wēi Lián Huán Máo Yǐn. It is 96~150 mm long and 5~8 mm wide. The number of body segments is 88-156. The band is located on the xiv-xvi section, in the shape of a ring, without bristles. The setae on the body are finer, the front ventral surface is sparse and not thick. 13~21 in the male hole, the male hole is in a shallow mating cavity on both sides of XVIII, the inner wall is pleated, there are 2~3 bristles in the fold, the male hole is on the protrusion at the bottom of the cavity, and a pair of nipple processes are often in front of the protrusion. There are 3 pairs of holes in the spermatic vesicle, and the holes are on a small protrusion in a transverse fissure between vi-vii ~ viviii -IX. There are 3 pairs of seminal vesicle foramen, in vi-vii ~VIII-IX internode foramen in a transverse fissure. There was no seminal vesicle, diaphragm v-ix ~ ix-x was absent, the cecum was simple. The end of the caecal tube of the seminal vesicle is 2/3 on the plane, curved left and right, it is the seminal vesicle. The back of the body is cyan or grey-green, dark cyan in the dorsal midline.

 Ecological environment: It likes dark and moisture, air circulation, oxygen sufficient environment, it is afraid of strong light, dry, and high-temperature hypoxia. Air humidity above 60%, the survival temperature range is 5~30 ℃, the suitable growth temperature is 20~25 ℃, dormancy below 5 ℃. Food is very miscellaneous, carrion organic matter can be used. It is also hermaphroditic, cross-fertilized, and the different shapes of worm cocoons are characteristic of classification. General 3~6 months of sexual maturity, 3 months of reproduction once, a year can lay eggs 3~4 times, each time produces worm cocoon 2~3. Terrestrial earthworms grow very fast, especially the earthworms before sexual maturity, almost every 10 days weight increase 1 time, its life span is short and long, short more than 200 days, long up to 10 years. It distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of north China.

 Characters of herbs: same as the Pheretima Vulgaris Chen.

 Pheretima pectinifera Michaelsen. (4).Pheretima pectinifera Michaelsen.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Zhì Máng Huán Máo Yǐn. Body 100~150 mm long, 5~9 mm wide, back and side with deep purple or purplish red, setae not from. Band three - jointed, unbridled. The front bristles, though thick, are not particularly thick in section ii-ix. Aa is slightly wider from zz than ab or y2.28-34(viii) between the pores of the spermatic vesicles, 20~36 between the male pores, but denser on the skin of the glands near the male pores, 6~7 lines on each side.

 The male genital foramen is in the center of a cruciform process, often by a shallow bursa skin fold cover, inside has two or more nipples, its arrangement changes greatly. The pore of the spermatic vesicle was 3 pairs, between 6/7 and 8/9, and was located nearly half of the circumference of the node. The hole is in one tit hind side, before and after two sides epidermal gland is swollen, hole often is immersed in, the ventral side of the hole is in setae before or hind ring, have a papillary process, arrange more regular.

 Ecological environment: It lives in moist and organic places. The earthworm distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: same as the Pheretima Vulgaris Chen.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Lumbricus has the function of thrombolysis and anticoagulant effect, hypotensive activity(lowering blood pressure), preventing and relieving cerebral arterial thrombosis(apoplexia), antiasthmatic, antipyretic effect, and so on.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and arresting convulsion, calm the liver and extinguishing wind(relieve dizziness, high fever, infantile convulsions, epilepsy, etc.), activating collaterals, relieving asthma and prompt diuresis. It is indicated for high fever and coma(hyperpyrexia or ardent fever, unconsciousness), febrile disease with fever and madness, frightened epilepsy and convulsions, liver Yang cephalea(headache due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang), joint arthralgia, limb numbness, stroke and hemiplegia, hemiplegia(paralysis of half of one's body), rheumatic arthralgia pain, lung heat and dyspnea with cough, edema and oliguria, urinary stoppage, etc.

 Administration of Lumbricus(Dì Lónɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Lumbricus(Dì Lónɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:5~10 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams;or grinded into fine powder, take 1~2 grams each time;or prepare to pill, powder;or fresh herb blend with sugar or salt water and take. Externally:proper amount, mash the fresh herb and apply stick, or extract juice and smear apply;grinded into fine powder and sprinkle, or mixed and smear apply(CHMM).

  • 1.Introduction of Di Long:Earthworm or Lumbricus.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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