Introduction of Tian Ma:Gastrodia Tuber or Rhizoma Gastrodiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind.

 TCM Herbs Icon13 Introduction: Herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind: also known as liver-pacifying and wind-extinguishing herb, an agent or substance herbs that pacifies the liver, suppresses exuberant Yang, extinguishes endogenous wind and controls spasms or tremors.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 13 Introduction: The herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind are known including:, , , , , , ,.

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [8] kinds of common TCM herbs, [3] kinds of related plant species, [4] kinds of related insects species, [10] kinds of related animal species, [1] kind of related minerals, are recorded in this category. These herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind are briefly introduced separately:

 
Rhizoma Gastrodiae(Gastrodia Tuber).

Rhizoma Gastrodiae Pin Yin Name: Tiān Má.
 English Name: Gastrodia Tuber.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Gastrodiae.
 Property and flavor: neutral nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Gastrodiae is the dried tuber of Gastrodia elata Bl.(family Orchidaceae), used (1).to extinguish wind and relieve spasm for treating convulsion and hemiplegia in cases of apoplexy, (2).to pacify the liver and subdue exuberant Yang for relieving headache, dizziness and vertigo, and (3).to relieve rheumatalgia. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Gastrodiae, Gastrodia Tuber, Tiān Má.

 Botanical source: Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Gastrodiae, or Tall Gastrodia Tuber as the dry rhizome of the plant species (1).Gastrodia elata Bl. It is a plant of the Gastrodia R. Br. genus, the Orchidaceae family of the Asparagales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Gastrodia elata Bl. (1).Gastrodia elata Bl.:
 Botanical description: The Gastrodia elata Bl., is a plant of the Orchidaceae family and Gastrodia genus, it is commonly known as "Gastrodia elata", or "Tiān Má". Perennial parasitic herbs. Plant height 30~100 cm, sometimes up to 2 meters; rhizome hypertrophy, tuberous, elliptic to nearly dumbbell-shaped, fleshy, 8~12 cm long, 3~5(7) cm in diameter, sometimes larger, with more In dense festivals, there are many triangle-shaped wide-oval sheaths on the festival. Stems erect, orange, yellow, gray-brown or blue-green, no green leaves, the lower part is a few membranous sheaths.

 acemes 5~30(50) cm long, usually 30~50 flowers; calyx oblong-lanceolate, 1~1.5 cm long, membranous; pedicels and ovary 7~12 mm, slightly shorter than calyx Flowers twisted, orange, yellow, blue-green or yellow-white, nearly erect; perianth tube ca. 1 cm in diameter, and petals, ca. 5~7 mm in diam., obliquely ovate-cylindric, apical 5 lobes, but in front of the joints of the two lateral septa, the depth of the fracture is up to 5 mm, the base of the cylinder protrudes forward; the outer lobe slicing (separated part of the septum) is ovate-triangular, apex obtuse; inner segment lobes (petal free part) Close to oblong, smaller; lip oblong-ovoid, 6~7 mm long, 3~4 mm wide, 3-lobed, base adnate to inner end of tip of column and perianth tube and paired The fleshy carcass, the upper part of the body, the upper mastoid, the edge of irregular short tassels; the column is 5~7 mm long, with a short columnar foot.

 Gastrodia elata Bl. Capsule obovate-elliptic, 1.4~1.8 cm long and 8~9 mm wide. The flowering and fruiting period is from May to July.

 Ecological environment: The Gastrodia elata Bl., grows in sparse forests, hollow forests, forest margins, bush edge, at the area of altitude 400~3200 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, northwest, southwest, Taiwan of China. This species also distributes in Nepal, Bhutan, Siberia.

 Growth characteristics: The Gastrodia elata Bl prefers a cool, wet environment, afraid of cold and drought, afraid of high temperature and water. Gastrodia elata has no roots and no green leaves. Throughout its life cycle, it lurks in the soil as a tuber all year round. Special way of nutrition, obtain nutrition specially from the invasion of the body of the mycelia of the archaea, for growth and development. It is advisable to choose sandy loam culture with rich humus, loose and fertile soil pH5.5-6.0 and good drainage.

 Characters of herbs: This herb is oval or oblong, slightly flat, wrinkled and slightly curved, 3~15 cm long, 1.5~6 cm wide, 0.5~2 cm thick. The surface is yellowish-white to yellowish-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and horizontal ring lines formed by the arrangement of latent buds, sometimes brown funicular. Apex with reddish-brown to dark brown parrot like buds or residual stem base; The other end has a round umbilical scar. Quality is hard, not easy to break off, the cross-section is relatively flat, yellow-white to light brown, cutin. Light smell, sweet taste.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Rhizoma Gastrodiae has a sedative effect, reduce the voluntary activities of mice, prolong sleep time, anti-convulsive effect, anti-hypoxia effect, has a certain anti-inflammatory effect, polysaccharide of Rhizoma Gastrodiae can enhance the body's non-specific immunity and cellular immunity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Calming endogenous wind and relieving convulsion, arresting convulsion, calm liver Yang, dispel wind and free collaterals. It is indicated for infantile convulsions, acute and chronic infantile convulsion, epilepsy and convulsion, spasm(muscular constricture), tetanus(lockjaw), cephalea and dizziness(headache and dizziness), dizziness and black eyes, wind syndrome of head and cephalea(intermittent headache), hemiplegia, limb numbness, rheumatic arthralgia pain, hemiplegia, aphasia(inability to use or understand language because of a brain lesion).

 Administration of Rhizoma Gastrodiae(Tiān Má): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Gastrodiae(Tiān Má)
TCM Books: Internally:3~10 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, grinded into powder and swallow,1~1.5 grams each time.(CHMM).


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Tian Ma:Gastrodia Tuber or Rhizoma Gastrodiae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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