Introduction of Wu Gong:Centipede or Scolopendra.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind.

 TCM Herbs Icon13 Introduction: Herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind: also known as liver-pacifying and wind-extinguishing herb, an agent or substance herbs that pacifies the liver, suppresses exuberant Yang, extinguishes endogenous wind and controls spasms or tremors.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 13 Introduction: The herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind are known including:, , , , , , ,.

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [8] kinds of common TCM herbs, [3] kinds of related plant species, [4] kinds of related insects species, [10] kinds of related animal species, [1] kind of related minerals, are recorded in this category. These herbs pacifying the liver and extinguishing wind are briefly introduced separately:

 
Scolopendra(Centipede).

Scolopendra Pin Yin Name: Wú Gōnɡ.
 English Name: Centipede.
 Latin Name: Scolopendra.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Scolopendra is the dried body of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L.Koch(family Scolopendridae), used (1).to extinguish wind and relieve spasms for the treatment of tics, convulsion, tetanus, and facial paralysis, (2).to unblock collateral meridians and alleviate pain in cases of stubborn arthralgia and intractable migraine, and (3).as a detoxicant for treating scrofula and venomous snake-bite. The herb is commonly known as Scolopendra, Centipede, Wú Gōnɡ.

 Source: The official herbal classics defined the herb Scolopendra(Centipede) as the dried body of the species (1). Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch., other famous herbal classics defined the herb Scolopendra(Centipede) as the dried body of the species (1). Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch., or (2). Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans(Newport). They are small animals of the Scolopendra genus, the Scolopendridae family of the Centipede order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. (1).Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch.:
 Description: It is commonly known as Shǎo Jí Wú Gōnɡ(Literally it means Centipede with fewer thorns), 110~140 mm long. Head plate and the first backplate golden yellow, from the second backplate varies from the dark green or dark green, at the end of the backplate near the yellowish-brown, chest and abdomen plate and step foot light yellow. The backplate has two inconspicuous longitudinal grooves from sections 4~9. The web has a longitudinal groove between the 2~19 nodes. The third, fifth, eighth, 10th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 18th and 20th sections have one pair of valves on each side. There are 4 monocular eyes on each side of the front of the head plate, integrating the left and right eye groups. There are poison glands in the jaw. The leading edge of the tooth plate was provided with 5 minor teeth, and the inner 3 minor teeth were close to each other. Step 21 pairs, the last step is the longest, extending to the rear, in the shape of a tail. The posterior end of the basal lateral plate has 2 small spines. The anterior leg segment has 2 spines on the lateral ventral surface and 1 spinous on the medial surface. Abaxially and medially have 1 spine and 1 corner spine. There are two small spines at the top of the subspines.

 Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. Life habits: They prefer to live in damp and dark places, especially in rotten wood, stone gaps and wet grass. Photophobia, nocturnal, preying on insects and other small animals. When the weather turns cold in October, the winter passes into the deep soil. The next year after the JingZhe, the weather turned warm, out of the hole foraging. Lay eggs between spring and summer. The female worm curled up its body and surrounded the egg group to hatch and protect the larvae. At night, crickets, grasshoppers, chafers and moths can be used to prey on insects, but also to kill small vertebrates (such as sparrows, lizards, and snakes) with their poisonous jaws. They eat each other. Generally after October, when the weather turns cold, drill into the soil, lurking in the ground 10~13 cm deep soil overwintering. The following year after the awakening of insects, as the weather becomes warmer, out of the hole for food.

 Centipedes lay eggs between spring and summer, with more than 15~35 eggs, oval, 3~3.5 mm long. The female has the habit of curling up, surrounding the egg group to hatch, and protecting the larvae. Larvae and adults have the same number of steps. Heteromorphic anal segment of both sexes.

 Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. Feeding practices: Water is essential for the survival of centipedes with few spines, and they must feed water every two to three days. Feeding water is as simple as dropping a drop of water on the tiny indentations of a stone tile. Centipedes will quickly lean over and suck voraciously. Sometimes a juicy piece of pear meat can do the same. Under the premise of maintaining water supply, centipedes with fewer spines can spend at least 1 week without food. Centipedes eat other arthropods: succulent tide worms, larger ants, locusts, cicadas are its favorites, even the frog. Its fearsome jaws are a powerful tool for hunting. Once the prey is targeted, it is difficult to escape its precise, accurate and ruthless attack. The majestic moniliform antennae seem to be crucial to the survival of the centipede. After almost every meal, he would put his two feelers down to the side of his jaw in turn for very detailed cleaning. These antennae must have developed sensory organs, which, if smeared, would greatly affect their ability to perceive the external environment, since they have only one pair of eyes and cannot see at all.

 Centipede is always in a state of readiness in the night, once found a situation, will immediately shrink the body into a slightly S type, and then in a relatively short time to attack. When I drop in small prey, such as ants, tide worms, and spiders, I usually get caught up in its venomous jaws before I know it, as if they never touched the bottom of the feeding bottle. Prey also did not have the slightest sign of resistance, like a lost treasure in the road by a greedy passer-by suddenly found the same, only to be grabbed for the fate of the bag. This fixation usually lasts for a few minutes, as if waiting for the prey to be fully anesthetized before feeding begins in earnest. Centipedes use their jaws to break open the shell of their prey, and then, like drinking water, curl their jaws and lip whiskers to eat the juicy "contents" of their prey until they are left with an empty shell.

 Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. Ecological environment: Centipedes are fond of living in damp and dark places, and often inhabit rotten wood, stone gaps, and wet grass. It lives in hilly and sandy low mountain areas and prefers warm places. Feed on small insects and their eggs. It widely distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: This herb is flat and long, 9~15 cm long and 0.5~1 cm wide. Composed of the head and trunk cadres, a total of 22 links. The head is dark red or reddish-brown, slightly shiny, covered with a head plate, the head plate is nearly round, the front end is slightly protruding, two sides are attached with a pair of jaw limbs; There are 1 pairs of antennae on both sides of the front end. Body cadre 1 backplate and head plate the same color, the other 20 backplates for brown-green or dark green, with luster, from the fourth backplate to the 20th backboard often two longitudinal groove line; Abdomen yellowish or brownish-yellow, wrinkled; Since section 2, there are 1 pairs of steps on both sides of each body; Feet yellow or reddish-brown, occasionally yellow-white, hooked; The last 1 pair of foot tail shape, so-called tail foot, easy to fall off. Quality brittle, fracture section. Smells slightly fishy, and have a special pungent odor, pungent taste, slightly salty.

 Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Newport. (2).Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans(Newport).:
 Description: It is commonly known as Duō Jí Wú Gōnɡ(Literally it means Centipede with many thorns). Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans(Newport) is the second-largest medicinal species of scolopendra in China. Body length up to 160 mm, 18 segments of antennae, 6 segments of base smooth and glabrous, teeth number 6+6, 2nd~20th backplate with complete parallel longitudinal suture. Most backplates have no edge, the 14th (15 or 16)~ 20th backplates have an incomplete edge. The 2nd~19th web was provided with incomplete parallel longitudinal sutures, the basal lateral plate protuberant ends were provided with 3 small spines, without dorsal and lateral spines. No tarsus was found on the 20th and 21st steps. At the end of the last step, there were 2 small spines on the outside of the ventral surface of the anterior femur, 2 small spines on the inside, 2 small spines on the inside of the back, and 3 small spines on the end of the corner spines. There are no reproductive limbs on either side of the web of the pregenital segment of the male adult.

 Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Newport. Ecological environment: Most of them live in hillside field on the road, rocky places near the village, the roadside rocks, weeds, deadwood in the well, woodpile, roofing tile gap between, besides the tank or cupboard in the kitchen. Come out for food at night. It eats insects, eggs, and meat. It distributes in the Zhujiang river area, the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River and other areas of China.

 The difference from the Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch: the shape is roughly similar, the main difference is the individual is larger, the tail foot of the anterior femoral section back of the medial spine number, ventral lateral spine number, ventral medial spine number are less spinous centipede for more, the tooth plate number is also more.

 Characters of herbs: The spine is larger and numerous. All with a dry body, long, redhead, and body black green, head and feet complete is better.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Scolopendra has the effect of ①.anti-tumor,②.antispasmodic,③.inhibiting skin fungus,④.Promote immune function.

 Medicinal efficacy: Calming endogenous wind, antispasmodic, arresting convulsion, free collaterals, relieve pain, detoxification, and eliminating stagnation, is indicated for liver wind agitation(endogenous liver wind), spasm and convulsion, infantile convulsion, apoplexia, apoplexia and facial paralysis, hemiplegia, frightened epilepsy, epilepsy, tetanus(lockjaw), pertussis(whooping cough), rheumatism and obstinate arthralgia, migraine(migraine headaches) and aching all over the head, sore and ulcer, scrofula(lymphoid tuberculosis), phymatiasis(tuberculosis), mass in the abdomen and tumor lump, pyogenic infections, corporic tinea, tinea tonsure, anal fistula, scald or burn, snake bite, venomous snake bite, etc.

 Administration of Scolopendra(Wú Gōnɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Scolopendra(Wú Gōnɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~5 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,0.5~1.5 qian(about 1.5~4.5 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:grinded into fine powder, apply stick(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,2~5 grams;grinded into fine powder,0.5~1 grams;or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, grinded into fine powder, sprinkle apply, infusing in oil or grinded into powder, apply stick(CHMM).


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Wu Gong:Centipede or Scolopendra.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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