Introduction of Chang Shan:Radix Dichroae or Antifeverile Dichroa Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Antifeverile Dichroa Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Dichroa febrifuga Lour., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Antifeverile Dichroa Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Dichroae(Antifeverile Dichroa Root).

Dichroa febrifuga Lour:flowering plant Pin Yin Name: Chánɡ Shān.
 English Name: Antifeverile Dichroa Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Dichroae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Dichroae is the dried root of Dichroa febrifuga Lour.(family Saxifragaceae), used for the treatment of malaria.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Dichroae(Antifeverile Dichroa Root) is the dried root of Dichroa febrifuga Lour., it is a plant of the Dichroa L. genus, the Saxifragaceae family of the Rose order. It is also known as Radix Dichroae, Antifeverile Dichroa Root, Chánɡ Shān.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Dichroae(Antifeverile Dichroa Root) as the dried root of (1). Dichroa febrifuga Lour. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Dichroa febrifuga Lour.

 Dichroa febrifuga Lour:flowering plant in forest Botanical description: It is commonly known as Antifeverile Dichroa. Shrubby plant, 1~2 meters high. Branchlets are green, often purplish, glabrous, or thinly puberulent. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 1.5~2 cm; Leaves vary widely, usually elliptic, oblong, obovate-elliptic, sparse lanceolate, 5~10 cm long, 3~6 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate, margin densely serrate or serrate; The middle veins are concave above, and the side veins arch upward. Corymbals conical; Terminal, stem; Flowers blue or bluish-purple; Calyx obconical, 4~7 calyx teeth; 4~7 petals, subsucculent, reflexed; 10~20 stamens, half opposite petals, filaments flattened; Ovary inferior, 4~6 styles, initial base connate. Berry is blue, with many seeds. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from August to October.

 Ecological environment: the plant grows on forest margins, gully sides, moist mountain areas at altitudes of 500~1,200 meters above sea level. Resource distribution: the plant distributes in the Zhujiang river area, northwest, southwest, the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cool and humid climate, to avoid high temperature. It is better to be cultivated in fecund loose, good drainage, sandy loam with much humus. The plant grows at the forest edge, gully edge, humid mountain, or cultivated under the forest at altitudes of 500-1200 meters above sea level. It distributes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, southwest, the Zhujiang River basin.

 Characters of herbs: The dry roots are cylindrical, often divergent, bent and twisted or torsional, 9~15 cm long and about 0.5~2 cm in diameter. The surface is yellow-brown, with obvious fine longitudinal lines and rootlet traces, and the cork is easy to peel off, showing light yellow xylem. The texture of the herb is hard, powder flies out when it is broken. The fracture surface is yellow-white, obvious off-white rays can be seen after wetting with water, which are arranged radially. The rhizome is cylindrical and nearly blocky. Except for the pith in the center of the cross-section, the other parts are the same as the cross-section of the root. The herb has a slight smell and bitter taste. The better herb has a solid and firm texture and heavy, shaped like chicken bone, with light yellow and smooth at the surface and fracture surface. Those herbs with thick and straight roots, loose texture, deep yellow color and no bitter taste can not be used as herb medicine.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-malarial; ②.anti-amoeba; ③.anti-leptospira; ④.antipyretic; ⑤.effect on the cardiovascular system, smooth muscle; ⑥.inducing vomiting; ⑦.antiviral; ⑧.anti-tumor effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Preventing attack or recurrence of malaria, relieving phlegm. Indicated for malaria.

 Administration of Radix Dichroae(Chánɡ Shān): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Dichroae(Chánɡ Shān)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~9 grams; ②.water decoction, 1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.water decoction,5~10 grams, or prepare to pill, powder. Those with weak healthy Qi, chronic disease and weak physical conditions should avoid using.
 Precautions: emetic effect, should not be used in big dosage, cautious use during pregnancy.

Pungent-cool Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-cool exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and cool in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-heat exterior syndrome.
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