Introduction of Chang Shan:Radix Dichroae or Antifeverile Dichroa Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Antifeverile Dichroa Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Dichroa febrifuga Lour., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Antifeverile Dichroa Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Dichroae(Antifeverile Dichroa Root).

two flowering plants of Dichroa febrifuga Lour,white flower spikes and green leaves Pin Yin Name: Chánɡ Shān.
 English Name: Antifeverile Dichroa Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Dichroae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Dichroae is the dried root of Dichroa febrifuga Lour., used for the treatment of malaria.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Dichroae (Antifeverile Dichroa Root) is the dried root of Dichroa febrifuga Lour., it is a plant of the Dichroa L. genus, the Saxifragaceae family (saxifrage family) of the Rose order. It is also known as Radix Dichroae, Antifeverile Dichroa Root, Chánɡ Shān.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Dichroae (Antifeverile Dichroa Root) as the dried root of (1). Dichroa febrifuga Lour. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Dichroa febrifuga Lour.

 flowering plants of Dichroa febrifuga Lour in forest Botanical description: Dichroa febrifuga Lour is commonly known as Antifeverile Dichroa, or Chánɡ Shān. A shrubby plant, the plant grows up to 1~2 meters high. Branchlets are green, often purplish, glabrous, or sparsely puberulent. Leaves are opposite; petioles are 1.5~2 cm long; leaf shape varies widely, usually elliptic, oblong, obovate-elliptic, rarely lanceolate, 5~10 cm long, 3~6 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is cuneate, the margin is densely serrate or fine serrate; the middle veins are concave on the upper surface, and the lateral veins are cambered arch upward.

 Corymbals are conical; terminal, have peduncle; flowers are blue or bluish-purple; calyx is obconical, 4~7 calyx teeth; 4~7 petals, subsucculent, reflexed in flowering; 10~20 stamens, half of them grow opposite to petals, filaments are flattened; ovary is inferior, 4~6 styles, the base connate at the initial stage.

 Fruit berries are blue, have many seeds. Its flowering period is from June to July, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on forest edges, gully sides, and moist mountain areas at altitudes of 500~1,200 meters above sea level. Resource distribution: the plant is distributed in northwest, southwest areas, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cool and humid climate, the temperature of the growth period is 10~35 °C (-5 degrees Celsius, or 50~95 degrees Fahrenheit), and relative air humidity is above 70%. It usually grows in the wild, on hills, streamsides, in valleys and bushes. It is better to be cultivated in fertile and loose, fine sandy soil, humus-rich sandy loam with good drainage. Likewise, it can not grow well in barren, dry clay soil.

 Characters of herbs: The dry roots are cylindrical, often ramificate, bent and twisted, or torsional, with branches, 9~15 cm long, and about 0.5~2 cm in diameter. The surface is yellow-brown, has conspicuous fine vertical lines and rootlet traces, and the cork is easy to peel off, showing light yellow xylem. The texture of the herb is hard, powder flies out when it is broken. The fracture surface is out of order, yellow-white, conspicuous off-white rays are visible after wetting it with water, which is arranged radially. The herb has a slight smell and a bitter taste. The herb of a better grade has a solid and firm texture and is heavy, shaped like a chicken bone, with light yellow and smooth at the surface and fracture surface. Those herbs with thick and straight roots, loose texture, deep yellow color, and no bitter taste can not be used as herbal medicine.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-malarial; ②.anti-amoeba; ③.anti-leptospira; ④.antipyretic; ⑤.effect on the cardiovascular system, smooth muscle; ⑥.inducing vomiting; ⑦.antiviral; ⑧.anti-tumor effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Preventing attack or recurrence of malaria, relieving phlegm. Indicated for malaria.

 Administration of Radix Dichroae (Chánɡ Shān): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Dichroae (Chánɡ Shān)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 5~9 grams; ②.water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.water decoction,5~10 grams, or prepare to pill, powder. Those with weak healthy Qi, chronic disease and weak physical conditions should avoid using.
 Precautions: emetic effect, should not be used in big dosage, cautious use during pregnancy.




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