✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Purgatives Herbs.
Introduction: Purgatives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that promotes defecation or even causes diarrhea, not only for relieving constipation, but also for driving stagnant matter, excessive heat and retained fluid out of the body.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species,  kinds of related insect species, are recorded in this category. These purgatives herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Semen Pruni(Chinese Dwarf Cherry Seed).
Brief Introduction: The herb Semen Pruni is the dried ripe seed of Prunus humilis Bge., Prunus japonica Thunb., or Prunus pedunculata Maxim., used as an aperient for the treatment of constipation, and a diuretic for relieving edema. The herb is commonly known as Semen Pruni, Chinese Dwarf Cherry Seed(and many other names, Chinese Dwarf Cherry Seed, Longstalk Peach Seed, Seed of Bunge Cherry, Seed of Dwarf Flowering Cherry, Seed of Chinese Bushcherry, Seed of Down), Yù Lǐ Rén.
✵The common official herbal classics defined the herb Semen Pruni(Chinese Dwarf Cherry Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Prunus humilis Bge., (2). Prunus japonica Thunb., or (3). Prunus pedunculata Maxim. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Pruni(Chinese Dwarf Cherry Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Prunus humilis Bge., (2). Prunus japonica Thunb., or (3). Prunus pedunculata Maxim., or (4). Prunus triloba Lindl. They are plant species of the Cerasus Mill genus, the Rosaceae family of the Rosales order. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Prunus humilis Bge.: It is commonly known as Cerasus humilis(Bge.) Sok., or ōu Lǐ. A species of the Cerasus Mill genus, the Rosaceae family of the Rosales order. Deciduous shrub, 1~1.5 meters tall. Bark is grayish brown, branchlets pilose. Leaves are alternate, oblong or ellipsoid lanceolate, 2.5~5 cm long, 1~2 cm wide, apex acute, margin thinly serrate, pubescent along main veins below; stipules are linear, caducous.
Flowers open with leaves, solitary or 2 connates, pedicels sparsely pubescent; 5 sepals, reflexed posterior; 5 petals, white or pink; Stamens are numerous; 1 carpels. Drupes subglobose, about 1.5 cm in diameter, bright red or orange when ripe, flowering from April to May, fruiting from May to June.
Seeds ovate, 5~8 mm long, 3~5 mm in diameter. Surface is yellow-white or light brown, one end pointed, the other blunt round. One side of the tip has a linear species umbilicus, the center of the round end has a dark chalazal point, the autochalazal point upward with many longitudinal vascular veins. Seed coat is thin, cotyledons are milky white, oily. Taste slightly bitter.
Ecological environment: the plant grows on a barren hillside or the edge of a sandy mound. It mainly distributes in the north area and other regions of China.
Trait identification: Seeds are ovate to long ovate, a few orbicular, 6~7 mm long, 3~4 mm in diameter. The seed's skin is yellow and brown. The chalking point is dark brown, with a diameter of about 0.7 mm.
(2).Prunus japonica Thunb.: It is commonly known as Cerasus japonica(Thunb.) Lois, or Yù Lǐ. A species of the Cerasus Mill genus, the Rosaceae family of the Rosales order. Shrubs, 1~1.5 meters tall. Branchlets are grayish brown, branchlets are green or greenish-brown, glabrous. Winter buds are ovate, glabrous. Leaf-blade is ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3~7 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded, margin incise sharp double serrate, dark green at upper part, glabrous or sparsely pilose on veins, lateral veins 5~8 pairs; Petiole 2~3 mm long, glabrous or sparsely pilose; Stipules linear, 4-6 mm long, margin with glandular teeth. 1~3 flowers, clustered, flowers and leaves open together or first; Pedicels 5-10 mm long, glabrous or sparsely pilose; Calyx tube gyro, nearly equal in length and width, ca. 2.5~3 mm, glabrous, sepals are elliptic, slightly longer than calyx tube, apex is rounded and obtuse, margin serrate; Petals are white or pink, obovate-elliptic; Stamens ca. 32; Style subequal with stamens, glabrous. Drupes subglobose, crimson, ca. 1 cm in diameter; The nuclear surface is smooth. Its flowering period is May, fruiting period is from July to August. 2n=16.
Ecological environment: the plant grows under the hillside forest, thicket or cultivation, growing in the sunny hillside, roadside or small bushes, 100~200 meters above sea level. It distributes in the north area, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It also distributes in northeast Asia.
Trait identification: Seeds are ovate or orbicular, ca. 7 mm long, ca. 5 mm in diameter. Seed coat is yellowish white to light brown. Apex acute, base obtuse. There was a linear umbilicus at the tip, dark brown at the junction, about 1 mm in diameter, and many brown vascular veins scattered at the auto junction. The ridge is obvious. Seed coat is thin, warm water immersion, seed coat is off, the inner surface with white translucent residual endosperm; 2 cotyledons, milky white, oily. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste.
(3).Prunus pedunculata Maxim.: It is commonly known as Amygdalus pedunculata Pall., or Cháng Gěng Biǎn Táo, or Cháng Bǐng Biǎn Táo. A species of the Amygdalus L. genus, the Rosaceae family of the Rosales order. Shrubs, 1~2 meters tall; Branches spreading, with many short branches; Branchlets are pale brown to dark grey-brown, pubescent when young; Winter buds are short, often 3 on short branches, the middle for leaf buds, two sides for flower buds. Leaves on short branches clustered densely, leaves on annual branches are alternate; Leaf blade is elliptic, suborbicular or obovate, 1~4 cm long, 0.7~2 cm wide, apex acute or obtuse, base broadly cuneate, upper part is dark green, lower part is light green, both surfaces sparsely pubescent, margin unevenly coarsely serrate, lateral veins 4~6 pairs; Petiole 2~510 mm long, pubescent.
Flowers are solitary, slightly before leaf opening, 1~1.5 cm in diameter; Pedicels 4~8 mm long, pubescent; Calyx tube broadly bell-shaped, 4~6 mm long, glabrous or slightly pilose; Sepals are triangular-ovate, apex slightly obtuse, margin sometimes sparsely shallowly serrate; Petals are suborbicular, 7~10 mm in diameter, sometimes apex slightly concave, pink; Stamens are numerous; Ovary densely pubescent, style slightly longer or several as long as stamens. Fruit is subglobose or ovoid, 10~15 mm in diameter, apex with small tips, dark purplish-red when ripe, densely pubescent; Pedicels 4~8 mm long; The flesh is thin and dry, dehiscent when ripe, away from the core; Nucleus broadly ovate, 8~12 mm in diameter, apical with tubercle pointed, base rounded, both sides are slightly flat, light brown, surface smooth or slightly wrinkled; Seed kernel is wide oval, brown-yellow. Its is flowering in May, fruiting from July to August.
Difference from Amygdalus triloba: The species is closely related to Amygdalus triloba (Lindl.) Ricker, but the shrub is relatively small and only 1~2 meters high. Leaf apex is often undivided, margin with irregular coarse serrate; Nucleus broadly ovate, apex with tubercle.
Ecological environment: the plant is fond of light, cold, and drought. It grows in the fixed sandy land, gravel sunny slope, and Piedmont of arid steppe and desert steppe. The plant distributes in Ningxia of China; It's also found in Siberia.
Trait identification: Seeds are conical, 8~9 mm long, 6 mm in diameter. Seed coat is reddish brown, wrinkled. Collocations are dark brown, ca. 2 mm in diameter.
(4).Prunus triloba Lindl.: It is commonly known as Amygdalus triloba, Amygdalus triloba(Lindl.) Ricder, or Yú Yè Méi. A species of the Amygdalus L. genus, the Rosaceae family of the Rosales order. Leaves on short branches are often clustered, leaves on annual branches are alternate; Leaf blade is broadly elliptic to obovate, 2~6 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, apex shortly acuminate, often 3-lobed, base broadly cuneate, upper mask is sparsely pilose or glabrous, lower pubescent, margin coarsely serrate or doubly serrate; Petiole 5~10 mm long, pubescent.
1~2 Flowers, opening before leaves, 2~3 cm in diameter; Pedicels 4~8 mm long; Calyx tube broadly bell-shaped, 3~5 mm long, glabrous or slightly hairy when young; Sepals are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, sparsely serrate near apex; Petals are suborbicular or broadly obovate, 6~10 mm long, apex obtuse, sometimes concave, pink; Stamens ca. 25~30, shorter than petals; Ovary densely pubescent, style is slightly longer than stamens.
Fruit is subglobose, 1~1.8 cm in diameter, apex with short tip, red, outer pubescent; Pedicels are 5~10 mm long; Pulp thin, when ripe cracking; Nuclear is subglobose, with a thick hard shell, 1~1.6 cm in diameter, hardly flattened on both sides, tip round blunt, surface with irregular reticulations. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from May to July.
Ecological environment: the plant prefers light, slightly resistant to shade, cold, can be overwintered at -35 ℃. Soil requirements are not strict, neutral to slightly alkaline, and fertile soil is better. The root system is developed, drought tolerance. It is not resistant to waterlogging. Strong disease resistance. The plant grows at low to medium altitudes on slopes or beside ditches, under bushes, or at the edge of forests. It distributes in the north, northwest, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It is cultivated in most parks throughout China, it also distributes in Central Asia.
Trait identification: Seeds are conical, 7~8 mm long, about 6 mm in diameter. Seed coat is reddish brown, wrinkled. Collocations are dark brown, ca. 2 mm in diameter.