Radix Codonopsis(Tangshen).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Qi Tonics,herbs for replenishing Qi: also known as Qi-tonifying herbs, an agent or substance that tonifies Qi, used in treating Qi deficiency.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Qi Tonics, herbs for replenishing Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [14] kinds of common TCM herbs, [27] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi are briefly introduced separately:

 
Radix Codonopsis(Tangshen).

 Radix Codonopsis Brief Introduction: The herb Radix Codonopsis is the dried root of Codonopsis pilosula(Franch.)Nannf.,Codonopsis pilosula var.modesta(Nannf.)L.T.Shen or Codonopsis tangshen Oliv.(family Campanulaceae), used to replenish Qi, promote fluid production and nourish blood for treating (1).deficiency of the middle Qi with general debility, anorexia, lassitude, and loose stools, and (2).deficiency of both Qi and Yin, with shortness of breath, pallor, dizziness and palpitations. The herb is commonly known as Radix Codonopsis, Tangshen, Dǎnɡ Shēn.

 Codonopsis pilosula ✵Common herbal classics defined the herb Pilose Asiabell Root(Dang Shen) as the root from the plant species (1).Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.(Dang Shen), (2).Codonopsis pilosula (Frach.)Nannf.Var.modesta(Nannf.)L.T.Shen.(Su Hua Dang Shen), (3).Codonopsis tangshen Oliv.(Chuan Dang Shen), (4).Codonopsis tubulosa Kom.(Guan Hua Dang Shen), (5).Codonopsis subglobosa W. W. Smith.(Qiu Hua Dang Shen), (6).Codonopsis canescens Nannf.(Hui Mao Dang Shen). They are plant species of the Codonopsis Wall. genus, the Campanulaceae family of the Campanulales order. The official herbal classics defined the herb as the root of the 1,2,3 botanical species, other famous herbal classics defined the herb as root from the 6 species. These 6 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Codonopsis pilosula Franch.Nannf. (1).Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.(Dang Shen): The Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., is a plant of the Campanulaceae family and Codonopsis genus, it is commonly known as "Dang Shen", perennial grass root is long cylindrical, diameter 1~1.7 cm, top carbonyl has a swollen root, with the majority of tumorous stem marks, skin milky yellow to light gray-brown, with vertical and horizontal wrinkles. Stems twisted, long and much-branched, lower sparsely white to coarsely bristly; upper smooth or suboptimal. Leaves opposite, alternate or false whorled; petiole 0.5~2.5 cm; leaf blade ovate broadly ovoid, length 1~7 cm, width 0.8~5.5 cm, apex obtuse or pointed, base truncate or light heart-shaped, entire margin Or microwave-like, green above, coarsely coarse-hairy, pinkish green below, pubescent. Flowers solitary, pedicel fine; calyx green, 5 lobes, oblong-lanceolate, 1~2 cm long, apex obtuse, smooth or slightly hairy; corolla broad-bellied, diameter 2~2.5 cm, yellowish-green, Pansy spots, apex 5-lobed, lobes triangular to broad triangles, erect; 5 stamens, filaments expand below middle; ovary lower, 3-locular, style short, 3 stigmas, very wide, funnel-shaped. Capsule conical, with persistent calyx. Seeds are small, oval, brown and shiny. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., grows in mountain bushes and forest margins. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in northwest areas, also in southwest areas and other areas of China.

 Codonopsis pilosula Frach.Nannf.Var.modesta Nannf.L.T.Shen. (2).Codonopsis pilosula (Frach.)Nannf.Var.modesta(Nannf.)L.T.Shen.(Su Hua Dang Shen): The Codonopsis pilosula (Frach.)Nannf.Var.modesta(Nannf.)L.T.Shen., is a plant of the Campanulaceae family and Codonopsis genus, it is commonly known as "Su Hua Dang Shen", the main difference between this variant and Codonopsis pilosula is: the whole plant is all nearly smooth and glabrous; calyx lobes are smaller, about 10 mm.

 Ecological environment: The Codonopsis pilosula (Frach.)Nannf.Var.modesta(Nannf.)L.T.Shen., grows in the mountain forest, forest edge, and shrub, at the area of an altitude 1,500-3,200 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the northwest areas of China, it also distributes in the southwest area.

 Codonopsis tangshen Oliv. (3).Codonopsis tangshen Oliv.(Chuan Dang Shen): The Codonopsis tangshen Oliv., is a plant of the Campanulaceae family and Codonopsis genus, it is commonly known as "Chuan Dang Shen", the main difference between this variant and the previous 2 species is: the lower base of the wedge-shaped or more blunt leaves, only occasional heart-shaped; calyx only close to the lowest part of the ovary, ovary and ovary almost square all-on. Its flowering and fruiting period is from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The Codonopsis tangshen Oliv., grows in mountain forest shrubs at an altitude of 900-2,300 meters above sea level, nowadays it is cultivated and available in large quantity. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Codonopsis tubulosa Kom. (4).Codonopsis tubulosa Kom.(Guan Hua Dang Shen): The Codonopsis tubulosa Kom., is a plant of the Campanulaceae family and Codonopsis genus, it is commonly known as "Guan Hua Dang Shen", the main difference between this variant and the previous 3 species is: the stem is not winding, more climbing or vine-like. Petiole is short, long 5 mm below. Calyx adnate to the round of ovary, lobes broadly ovate, 1.2 mm long, 8 mm wide, less than half corolla; corolla tube; filaments coat, anthers keel. Its flowering and fruiting period is from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The Codonopsis tubulosa Kom., grows in mountain, hillside, forest. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area of China.

 Codonopsis subglobosa W. W. Smith. (5).Codonopsis subglobosa W. W. Smith.(Qiu Hua Dang Shen): The Codonopsis subglobosa W. W. Smith., is a plant of the Campanulaceae family and Codonopsis genus, it is commonly known as "Qiu Hua Dang Shen", the main difference between this variant and the previous 4 species is: smaller leaves, length, and width are 3 cm, below. Calyx adnate to ovary terminal, glabrous, lobes ovoid or rhombic-ovate, lobes curved wide and obtuse, serrate and bristle; corolla is spherical bell, yellow, and apex with purplish red. Its flowering and fruiting period is from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The Codonopsis subglobosa W. W. Smith., grows in the mountain grassland, gravel, or ditch scrub at the elevation of 2,500~3,500 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area of China.

 Codonopsis canescens Nannf. (6).Codonopsis canescens Nannf.(Hui Mao Dang Shen): The Codonopsis canescens Nannf., is a plant of the Campanulaceae family and Codonopsis genus, it is commonly known as "Hui Mao Dang Shen", the main difference between this variant and the previous 5 species is: stem length is 25~85 cm. Branches and nearly woody. Plant covered with dense white hair, rod plant is gray. Leaves are alternate on the main stem, on the lateral branches of the opposite, smaller leaves, length, and width up to 1.5 cm × 1 cm below. Calyx outside densely white hirsute; corolla length is usually no more than 2 cm. Its flowering and fruiting period is from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The Codonopsis canescens Nannf., grows in the mountain grass slope, beaches, and more rocks, or sunny dry place at the altitude of 3,000-3,400 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the west-south area and other areas of China.

 
 

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