Radix Ginseng(Ginseng).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Qi Tonics,herbs for replenishing Qi: also known as Qi-tonifying herbs, an agent or substance that tonifies Qi, used in treating Qi deficiency.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Qi Tonics, herbs for replenishing Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [14] kinds of common TCM herbs, [27] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi are briefly introduced separately:

Radix Ginseng(Ginseng).

 Radix Ginseng Brief Introduction: The herb Radix Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.(family Araliaceae), used (1).to powerfully replenish Qi and to promote fluid production for the treatment of prostration, general weakness, diabetes mellitus, impotence or frigidity, heart failure and cardiogenic shock, (2).to tonify the spleen and lung for the treatment of anorexia, cough and shortness of breath, and (3).as a tranquilizer for treating cardiac palpitation and insomnia. The herb is commonly known as Radix Ginseng, Ginseng, Rén Shēn.

 ✵Common herbal classics defined the herb Panax Ginseng(Ren Shen) as the root of the plant species (1). Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. It is a plant species of the Panax L. genus, the Araliaceae family of the Apiales order. This commonly used species and its different kinds are introduced as:

 Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (1).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, perennial, grows up to 60 cm. The main roots are hypertrophic, fleshy, cylindrical, and often divergent. They are commonly referred to as "spiritual bodies" or "cross bodies" by the upper two divergent members; those who do not divide or are commonly referred to as "stupid bodies" or "special bodies" in the lower bifurcation; It is long, with many small pods; there are scars on the rhizomes, and sometimes the roots take effect. Stems erect, green, slender, smooth and glabrous. The impeller is grows on the stem, the number varies according to the age of growth. When it was growing, it was 1 out of 3 compound leaves. The biennial was 1 out of 5 palmate compound leaves. The three-year-old was 2 out of 5 palmate compound leaves. The number of them is 3, and thereafter they increase year by year and finally increase to 6; the leaves are long-handled; the leaflets are ovate or obovate, the leaflets at the base of the compound leaves are small, 2~3 cm long and 1~1.5 cm wide; the upper leaflets are 4~15 cm long, 2.2~4 cm wide; apex acuminate, base cuneate, decurrent, margin serrate, erect bristles along leaf veins below, glabrous below; petioles up to 2.6 cm. The total peduncle is extracted from the middle of the petiole of the stem and is about 7~20 cm long. The terminal umbel inflorescence has more than a dozen or dozens of yellowish-green flowers, usually beginning to bloom in the fourth year; the flowers are pedicel, bisexual and male; green, 6-lobed; 6 petals, apex cuspidate; 5 stamens; ovary inferior, 2-celled, 2 styles, free in bisexual flowers, hollow in tubers in male flowers. Berry-like stone fruit, kidney-shaped, bright red at maturity, 1 seed per room. Seeds are white, flat round oval, flat on one side. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting period is from July to September.

 Ecological environment: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., grows in dense forest of mountains. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China provinces mountains of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and northern Hebei. Liaoning and Jilin have extensive cultivation. The plant grows in the wild environment are called "Wild Ginseng, or Wild Mountain Ginseng"; the cultivated plant are called "Garden Ginseng". The plant which grows from the transplanting young wild ginseng into the farm fields, or transplanting cultivated young ginseng shrub into the wild and growing up, is called "Transplant Wild Ginseng". The Wild Mountain Ginseng, Garden Ginseng, and Transplant Wild Ginseng, are introduced:

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Wild Mountain Ginseng (1.1).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Wild Mountain Ginseng): The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, it grows in mountains and commonly known as "Wild Ginseng", or "Wild Mountain Ginseng", or "Ye Shan Shen", perennial plant; rhizomes (reticular heads) are short, erect or oblique, not thickened into chunks. Main root is hypertrophy, spindle or cylindrical. Stems above ground are solitary, 30~60 cm tall, with vertical stripes, glabrous, with persistent scales at base. Leaves are palmately compound, 3~6 tuberculous stems apically, young leaves less; petiole 3-8 cm long, longitudinally glabrous, glabrous, stipules absent at base; 3~5 leaf blades, young plants often 3, thin-filmed, central lobate elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 8~12 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, outermost pair of lateral leaflets ovate or ovate-ovate, 2~4 cm long, 1.5~3 cm wide, apex long acuminate, base broadly cuneate, decurrent, margin serrate, teeth thorny, scattered a few bristles above, bristles ca. 1 mm, glabrous below, lateral veins 5~6 pairs, obviously on both sides, the veins are not obvious; the petiole is 0.5~2.5 cm long and the lateral ones are shorter. Umbrella indistinct, ca. 1.5 cm in diameter, 30~50 flowers, dilute 5~6 flowered; pedicels usually are longer than leaves, 15~30 cm long, with vertical stripes; pedicels filiform, 0.8~1.5 cm in length; flower is yellowish green; gills are glabrous, margin with 5 triangular teeth; 5 petals, ovate-triangulate; 5 stamens, filaments short; ovary 2-locular; 2 styles, free. The fruit is spherical, bright red, 4~5 mm long and 6~7 mm wide. Seeds are kidney-shaped, milky white.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Wild Mountain Ginseng Ecological environment: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., grows in the deciduous broad-leaved forest or coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest several hundred meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes at 40 to 45 degrees north latitude and 117.5 to 134 degrees east longitude, in China provinces eastern Liaoning, eastern Jilin, and eastern Heilongjiang. It distributes in Jilin and Liaoning and also introduced and grows in Hebei(Lingwushan and Dushan mountains), Shanxi and Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.

 The Wild Ginseng is the ginseng growing in the wild mountains. It is a valuable Chinese medicinal material and has a lot of values. The Wild Ginseng is considered to have the best quality and the best medicinal effect because it has been growing for a long time. In the years of excavation, more and more reductions have disappeared in most parts of Jilin. Some are growing in or around the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, grades according to the number of leaves.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Wild Mountain Ginseng The Wild Ginseng, also known as "Ren Shen", "Bang Chui(Battledore)", "Fairy Grass", "Di Jing(Earth Goblin)" and so on. There is also a legend about the origin of the name of the Di Jing(Earth Goblin): according to legend, during the years the emperor Sui Wendi of the Sui Dynasty, someone in the Shangdang county heard somebody cries every night after they were home, but found nobody around. Going out a mile and found ginseng which foliage grows abnormal. The man dug into the soil five feet in depth, get ginseng, and it looks just like the human body, already has all four limbs, and the crying sound is stopped. Ever since then, it was called Di Jing(Earth Goblin).

 Ginseng Baby There are many other folk legends about ginseng, one story tells: Once upon a time, an old man in the mountains had a son who often went out into the mountains alone. One day, the son came back and told that he had met a chubby child dressing in a red belt in the mountains and play with him together. It is strange. The old man told his son that the child might be a ginseng, and he took his son a needle and put on a red thread, asked his son to put the needle in the pocket of the child, and he wouldn’t walk if he was ginseng! When the son encountered the chubby child in the mountains again, he pinned the needle in his pocket, and the child really turned into a large ginseng. Therefore, once the mountain people find ginseng, they must use the red thread prepared in advance to pin on the ginseng's stem, and ginseng can't run away.

 The collection of wild ginseng is very laborious. People can only collect one wild ginseng in the mountains for a period of one or several months of hard work. It is said that there is a very beautiful bird in the deep mountains and old forests. It is most active in August. The bird likes to eat ginseng seeds and screams like a scholar. It will only say, “Wang Ganduo!” “Wang Ganduo!”, audible, where there is such a bird, there is ginseng. The wild ginseng grows naturally in the old remote, thickly forested mountains. Some of them have been growing for centuries and have not been cultivated artificially or chemically. The collection is very laborious and the medicinal value is extremely high. It is also a rare green precious treasure with high conservation value, and expensive.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Transplant Wild Ginseng (1.2).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Transplant Wild Ginseng): The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, it grows in mountains or farm fields and commonly known as "Transplant Wild Ginseng", or "Yi Shan Shen", the plant which grows from the transplanting young wild ginseng into the farm fields, or transplanting cultivated young ginseng shrub into the wild and growing up, are called "Transplant Wild Ginseng". The wild ginseng is a rare medicinal material produced in the virgin forest of Changbai Mountain. It mainly grows in hilly broad-leaved mixed forests with an altitude of 2,200~1,000 meters and a canopy density of 0.7~0.8. The distribution areas generally have wet-type temperate monsoon climate characteristics and are mostly growing in shade-sheltered areas where the east-west sun shines. The wild ginseng is the best ginseng of the medicinal effect. It has a nourishing effect due to its sparse yield and enjoys a high reputation in the world.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Transplant Wild Ginseng The Transplant Wild Ginseng is a kind of wild ginseng. There are two types of it and known as "Mountain Transplant" or "Home Transplant": "Mountain Transplant" means a mountain farmer puts a mountain seedling of present wild ginseng, due to their small weight and age, are not suitable to be stocked, so they are transplanted to the undergrowth near the home to facilitate caretakers and natural growth; “Home Transplant” refers to the ginseng planted by the farmers, the seedlings are transplanted into the forest in the mountains, and they are not watered or fertilized, so that they can grow naturally in the wild.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Transplant Wild Ginseng Ecological environment: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Transplant Wild Ginseng), grows in the forest of mountains.

 The basic feature of the Transplant Wild Ginseng is that the burrowing leishen often becomes thin or thick, and it does not appear as a pile of reeds but turns to reeds. Lines of reeds are often found, most of which are bamboo reeds. The loose-vein looseness is not tight, and it is long and sparse; Most of them are swift, but some of them have long-term growth. They are sometimes called jujube kernels. Sometimes they appear to have thick and thin shapes. They are upturned and upward, and they have many overhangs. Sometimes the corpus callosum exceeds the body; More often than not, the legs are relatively lengthy, with 1~3 or more, the transplanting of new soil is large and the nutrition accumulation is mainly in the lower part of the main root, which makes the lower body expand rapidly, and the white and tender "big ass" remains unchanged., showing the yin and yang color under the black and white; cortex slightly soaked and tender, rough, not smooth, there are sparsely tight horizontal stripes, ring lines superficial, often a pattern, in the end, there is no tight fine lines; transplanted after the leg must be swollen with the top and bottom, the legs must be divided, the ginseng must be tender and short, more lower branches, the pearl point is sparse and small; the bottom of the pool ginseng is the longer the finer, thicker and thinner, upturned, lateral extension, coarse horizontal stripes, rough and wrinkled cortex, multiple burning whiskers, red rust, scars and other morbid states.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Garden Ginseng (1.3).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Garden Ginseng): The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, it grows in farm fields and cultivated artificially, and commonly known as "Garden Ginseng", or "Planted ginseng", or "Yuan Shen", the plant grows similarly as the wild mountain ginseng.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Garden Ginseng The head of the reed is thick and not bent, and the reed is sparse on the reed head. The main root is mostly cylindrical, with loose texture; horizontal lines are thick and shallow, discontinuous, and upper and lower parts. The legs are many and short, the ginseng must be many and short, staggered and scattered, the quality is more brittle, and the pearls are not obvious. There are common garden ginseng and ginseng. The former is short, thick, and has many legs. The latter has been cultivated for more than eight years and is characterized by long reeds, body length, and leg length.

 Ecological environment: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Garden Ginseng), is mainly cultivated at Baishan City, Tonghua City of Jilin Province, Heilongjiang, and Liaoning of China.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Garden Ginseng The appearance of the Garden Ginseng is beautiful, thick, and the roots are dense. It has some differences from the Wild Ginseng:1. The garden ginseng root is short and the wild ginseng's head is relatively long; 2. The garden ginseng body is stout and opaque milky white, while the wild ginseng is fine; 3. The garden ginseng of the ginseng must be dense like a broom and brittle, while the wild ginseng sparse, long and tough.

 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.Garden Ginseng Since the Tang Dynasty, China has begun the artificial cultivation of ginseng. Cultivated garden ginseng has been cultivated in Hebei, Shanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, and Hubei provinces except for a large amount of cultivation in the northeast. Under meticulous management, cultivated ginseng can be harvested in 6 years. Ginseng mostly grows between 40 and 45 degrees north latitude, with an average temperature of -23~5 °C in January, an average temperature of 20~26 °C in July, strong cold resistance, the low-temperature resistance of -40 °C, and the suitable growth temperature of 15~25 °C. The accumulated temperature is 2,000~3,000 °C, the frost-free period is 125~150 days, the snow is 20~44 cm, and the annual precipitation is 500~1,000 mm. The soil is well-drained, loose, fertile, brown forest soil with deep humus layer or brownish forest soil with a mountain pH value of 5.5~6.2. Grow in Pinus koraiensis mixed forest or deciduous broad-leaved forest, the canopy density is 0.7~0.8. Ginseng usually blooms in 3 years, results from 5 to 6 years, its flowering period is from May to June, and fruiting from June to September. It grows at area several hundred meters above sea level in deciduous broad-leaved forest or coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest.


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