Introduction of Huang Jing:Solomonseal Rhizome or Rhizoma Polygonati.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Qi Tonics,herbs for replenishing Qi: also known as Qi-tonifying herbs, an agent or substance that tonifies Qi, used in treating Qi deficiency.

 
Rhizoma Polygonati(Solomonseal Rhizome).

Rhizoma Polygonati Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Jīnɡ.
 English Name: Solomonseal Rhizome,Siberian Solomonseal Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Polygonati.
 Property and flavor: neutral nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Polygonati is the steamed and dried rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum Red., Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl., or Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua(family Liliaceae), used (1).to replenish spleen Qi for the treatment of general debility and poor appetite, and (2).to nourish lung Yin for the treatment of chronic dry cough in cases of phthisis. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Polygonati, Solomonseal Rhizome, Huánɡ Jīnɡ.

 Botanical source: Common official herbal classics defined the herb Solomonseal Root(Huánɡ Jīnɡ) as the dry rhizome of the Liliaceae family plant species (1). Polygonatum sibiricum Red., or (2). Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl., or (3). Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Other famous herbal classics also noted several other species of the same family could be used too, including (4). Polygonatum macropodiumTurcz., and (5). Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle. They are plants of the Polygonatum Mill. Genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliflorae order. These 3 commonly used species and other 2 usable species are introduced as:

 Polygonatum sibiricum Red. (1).Polygonatum sibiricum Red.:
 Botanical description: The Polygonatum sibiricum Red., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum sibiricum", or "Huáng Jīng". Perennial herbs, 50~90 cm in height, over 1 meter occasionally. Rhizomes traversed, terete, nodules swollen. Impeller produced, no handle, 4~6 pieces per wheel; Leaf blade linear-lanceolate, 8~15 cm long, 4~16 mm wide, apex acuminate and punched.

 Polygonatum sibiricum Red. Flowers are axillary, pendulous, 2~4 flower clusters umbrella, total pedicel length is 1~2 cm, pedicel length is 4~10 mm, base with membranous bracteoles, subulate or lanceolate, with 1 vein. Perianth tubular, white to yellowish, full-length is 9~13 mm, 6 lobes, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long; Stamens inserted at more than 1/2 of tepals tube, filaments short, 0.5~1 mm long; Ovary length 3 mm, style length 5~7 mm.

 Berry globose, 7~10 mm in diameter, purple and black when ripe. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum sibiricum Red., grows in the semi-shade of mountain forests, thickets or slopes. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, northwest area, and other provinces of China.

 Polygonatum sibiricum Red. Other names: Chicken-shape ginseng(or JiZhuang Cen, folk names from Gansu, Shaanxi), Ji Tou Qi, Wu Ya Qi(literally it means Chicken-Head Seven, or Crow Seven, folk names from ShaanXi), Huang Ji Cai, Bi Guan Cai(folk names from North-East China), Lao Hu Jiang(literally it means tiger ginger, folk names from Ningxia), Chicken-Head Huangjing(general name).

 Collection: fresh rhizomes will be washed to remove fibrous roots and shoots, laundry 1 or 2 days to the surface slightly dry, yet internal soft, smooth basket with a special cage lightly hit again, remove the outer thin skin and fibrous roots, and soft, knead again while drying side, and so was repeated without hard foam degrees at heart. To be drying to the whole stem, and then rammed the side to bright smoothing top.

 Growth characteristics: Huang Jing prefers wet weather conditions, like overcast, cold, fear of drought, poor growth in the dry areas, in the moist environment with shade good growth. In a deep, loose fertile soil, drainage and water better performance the growth good, unsuitable for plant growth in the barren and arid land.

 Characters of herbs: Rhizome is nodular. One end is thick, disc-like, one end tapering, terete, whole horn slightly like a chicken head, 2.5~11 cm, coarse tip 1~2 cm in diameter, often with short branches, marked stem marks above, round, slightly concave, 2~3 mm in diameter, with dimly visible links around. The thin end is 2.5~4 cm, 5~10 mm in diameter, obvious links, 5~15 mm internode distance, more fibrous roots or fibrous root marks, about 1 mm in diameter. Surface is yellowish-brown, some translucent, with wrinkles; The cylinder has a longitudinal texture. The quality is hard and brittle or slightly flexible, easy to break, cross-section is yellow-white, granular, there is more yellow-brown to bundle small points. Smells slightly, taste slightly sweet.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Antimicrobial effect: Rhizoma Polygonati has an inhibitory effect on acid-fast bacteria in test tubes. The water decoction of the herb Rhizoma Polygonati has a significant antibacterial effect on experimental tuberculosis guinea pigs when it is administered at the same time of infection with tuberculosis or after infection with lymphoid enlargement. It has only a weak inhibitory effect on typhoid bacillus. ②. Anti-fungal effect: the concentration of alcohol extract solution above 2% concentration begin to have an inhibitory effect on a variety of fungi, such as Trichophyton violaceum, Epidermophyton rubrum, and so on. ③. Antihypertensive effect: both the water extract and the 30% ethanol extract of the Rhizoma Polygonati can reduce the blood pressure of anesthetized animals. ④. Other function: the herb Rhizoma Polygonati also has hypoglycemic activity(lower blood sugar) and inhibit the elevation of the blood sugar level, Anti-fatigue Effect, anti-oxidant effect (elevate the activity of liver superoxide dismutase SOD, reduce myocardial lipid brown mass content), anti-aging effect, hemostasis(stanch bleeding), anti-viral, improved the red cell membrane Na+, K+, -ATP enzymatic activity, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonifying Qi and nourishing Yin(invigorating vital energy and nourish Yin), invigorating spleen-stomach and replenishing Qi, invigorating spleen, invigorating spleen and replenishing Qi, nourishing Yin and moistening lung, moistening the heart and lung, invigorate kidney, nourishing kidney and replenishing essence, strengthening muscles and bones. It is indicated for deficiency of spleen-Qi and stomach-Qi, spleen deficiency and feebleness(insufficiency of the spleen, lack of strength), weary and feebleness(tiredness, lack of strength), deficiency of stomach Yin, dry mouth and poor appetite, asthenia and alternation of fever and chill, lung deficiency and irritating dry cough, Yin deficiency and over-strained cough, over-strained cough and hemoptysis(cough due to consumption and cough blood), pulmonary tuberculosis and hemoptysis, insufficiency of essence and blood, physical deficiency and poor appetite after disease, soreness and weakness of waist and knees due to kidney deficiency hurt, soreness and weakness of waist and knees, impotence and seminal emission, soft and weakness of muscles and bones, premature graying hair, tinnitus and dim eyesight(ringing in the ears, dim eyesight), endogenous heat and wasting thirst(internal heat, consumptive thirst), consumptive thirst, rheumatism aching pain, physical deficiency and emaciation, tinea and corporic tinea, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Polygonati(Huánɡ Jīnɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Polygonati(Huánɡ Jīnɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:9~15 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams), fresh herb 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams);prepare to ointment, or pill, powder. Externally:wash with water decoction.(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams, fresh herb 30~60 grams;or prepare to pill, powder, or prepare to ointment. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction;prepare ointment and smear apply;or infusing in wine and smear apply.(CHMM).


 Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl. (2).Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl.:
 Botanical description: The Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum kingianum", or "Diān Huáng Jīng". Perennial herb, up to 1 meter high. Rhizome across, node. Stem erect simple. Leaves 4~6 whorled, linear, 8~13 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, apex acuminate and curly, base narrower; Sessile.

 Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl. Flowers 1~3 axillary; Perianth tubular, pale green, 6-lobed. The berries are spherical and ripe orange-red. The flowering period is from April to May.

 Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl. Character Identifications: The dried rhizomes are irregularly conical, shaped like the head of a chicken(commonly referred to as "Chicken Head Polygonatum" or "Ji Tou Huang Jing"), or nodular like ginger(commonly referred to as "Ginger Shape Polygonatum" or "Jiang Xing Huang Jing"). Branches are short and thick, 3~10 cm long, 1~3 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-white to yellowish-brown, translucent, all have fine furrowed and slightly uplift the link that shows waveform, on the ground stem mark is disk-shaped, the center is often sunken, root mark show more point-like protuberance, distribute whole or many collect to grow in bulking part. The drier is hard, brittle and flexible. Cross-section is light brown, show semitransparent cutin like or waxy shape and have many yellow and white dots. Odorless, slightly sweet and sticky. It is better to use big lump, yellow color, transparent cross-section, moist quality.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum sibiricum Red., grows under damp hillsides or bushes. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest, north, northwest area of China.

 Characters of herbs: Rhizome hypertrophy, ginger fast shape or beaded shape, straight to 2~4 cm or more, each nodule has obvious stem mark, disc shape, slightly concave, appropriate to 5~8 mm. Fibrous root mark, often prominent, diameter is about 2 mm. The surface is yellow-white to yellow-brown, with obvious links and irregular wrinkles. Solid, more flexible, not easy to break, cross-section yellow-white, flat, granular, many dark vascular bundle small point. Slight smell, sweet taste, sticky.

 Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. (3).Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua.:
 Botanical description: The Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum cyrtonema", or "Duō Huā Huáng Jīng". Rhizome thickened, often continuous, or agglomerate, thin cylindrical, 1~2 cm in diameter. Stem height: 50~100 cm. Leaves alternate, elliptic/ovate-lanceolate to rectangular, slightly sickle curved, 10~18 cm long, apical.

 Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Inflorescences are axillary, umbrella-shaped, with 2~7 flowers, total pedicels 1~4 cm long, flowers 0.5~1.5 cm, pale flakes small or not present; Perianth yellow-green, connate tubular, 18~25 mm long, 6 lobes, ca. 3 mm long; 6 stamens, filaments inserted nearly one-third of the middle or upper portion of perianth tube, papillate to pubescent, slightly swollen to cystic. Ovary 3~6 mm long, style 12~15 mm long.

 Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Berries are about 1 cm in diameter and black when ripe.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua., grows in the dank and fertile soil beside forests, thickets, and ravines, or cultivated artificially. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the south-central area and the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: Rhizome beaded or massive, slightly cylindrical, 2~3 cm in diameter. Stem marks on each nodule are prominent, disc-shaped, and about 1 cm in diameter. Cylindrical link is obvious, there are many fibrous root mark, diameter is about 1 mm. The surface is yellowish brown with fine wrinkles. Solid, slightly flexible, cross-section surface is granular, with many small points of yellow and brown vascular bundle hash. Smells slightly, taste slightly sweet.

 Polygonatum macropodium Turcz. (4).Polygonatum macropodium Turcz.:
 Botanical description: The Polygonatum macropodium Turcz., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum macropodium", or "Rè Hé Huáng Jīng". Perennial herb, 30~70 cm high. Rhizome transverse, cylindrical, knotted. Stem erect simple. Leaves alternate, sessile or very short stems above the middle of the stem; Leaf blade broadly elliptic or ovate, 3~8 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, apex obtuse, base is rounded, entire, lower mask dust. Flowers are axillary, total pedicels long 3~6 cm, bearing 4~10 flowers, into cymes.

 Polygonatum macropodium Turcz. Perianth tubular, milky white, apex 6-lobed, lobes obtusely triangular; 6 stamens, inserted in the center of the tepals; Ovary ovoid, with slender white style. Berry globose, black when ripe.

 Its flowering period is May, fruiting period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum macropodium Turcz., grows under the forest, hillside grass, trees, or on slopes between 400 and 1,500 meters above the sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north area and other areas of China.

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. Royle. (5).Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle.:
 Botanical description: The Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum cirrhifolium", or "Juǎn Yè Huang Jing". Perennial herb, rhizomes thickened, terete, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, or rhizomes beaded, nodules 1~2 cm in diameter. Stem height: 30~90 cm.

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. Royle. The leaves are usually 3~6 per whorl, rarely lower and sparsely lanceolate, thin to striate lanceolate, rarely rectangular and round lanceolate, 4~9 cm long, 2~8 mm wide, apex is punch-shaped or curved into a hook, a side often outer roll.

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. Royle. Inflorescence whorled, usually with 2 flowers, peduncle 3~10 mm long, peduncle 3~8 mm long, overhanging; Bracts hyaline membranous, unveined, 1~2 mm long, located on or at base of pedicel, or absent from bracts; Perianth mauve, 8~11 mm in length, perianth tube middle slightly constricted, splice about 2 mm long; Filament length about 0.8 mm, anther length 2~2.5 mm; Ovary ca. 2.5 mm, style ca. 2 mm. Berry red or fuchsia, 8~9 mm in diameter, with 4~9 seeds.

 Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle., grows in the dank mountain bushes and bushes beside the forest, hillside, or grassland, at altitude 2,000~4,000 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the northwest and southwest areas of China, Nepal, and northern Pakistan.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Huang Jing:Solomonseal Rhizome or Rhizoma Polygonati.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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