Introduction of Xi Yang Shen:American Ginseng or Radix Panacis Quinquefolii.
✵The article gives records of the herb American Ginseng, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Panax quinquefolius L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb American Ginseng, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Radix Panacis Quinquefolii(American Ginseng).
Pin Yin Name: Xī Yánɡ Shēn, or Huā Qí Shēn.
English Name: American Ginseng.
Latin Name: Radix Panacis Quinquefolii.
Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes sweet, slightly bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Panacis Quinquefolii is the dried root of Panax quinquefolium L., used to replenish Qi, nourish Yin, reduce the internal heat and promote fluid production, for treating (1). Yin deficiency with exuberant fire with cough and blood-streaked sputum, and (2).impairment of both Qi and Yin in cases of febrile diseases with fidgetiness and thirst. The herb is commonly known as Radix Panacis Quinquefolii, American Ginseng, Xī Yánɡ Shēn.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb American Ginseng(Radix Panacis Quinquefolii, Xi Yang Shen) as the dry root of the Araliaceae family (ginseng, ivy family) plant species (1). Panax quinquefolius L. It is a plant of the Panax L. genus, the Araliaceae family of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Panax quinquefolius L.
Botanical description: The Panax quinquefolius L., is a plant of the Araliaceae family (ginseng, ivy family) and Panax genus, it is commonly known as "Panax quinquefolius", "Huā Qí Shēn", "Xī Yánɡ Shēn". and also other names "Aralia quinquefolia", "Panax quinquefolium", "American ginseng", "Panax quinquefolium L.", "Radix Panacis Quinquefolii", literally "Huā Qí" means "the Stars and Stripes" (the flag of USA). Perennial herb, the main root is round or spindle-shaped, light yellow or yellow-white surface, shiny color, fine grain, full and strong texture, the cross-section is clean, showing a clear texture of chrysanthemum, ginseng tablets bitter taste, through the throat, all glabrous. Roots are fleshy, spindle-shaped, and sometimes divergent. Short rhizomes. The stem is cylindrical, about 25 cm long, with vertical stripes, or slightly ribbed.
Palmate 5 compound leaves, usually 3~4, whorled at stem end; petiole length 5~7 cm; leaf blade is membranous, broadly ovate to obovate, 4~9 cm long, 2.5~5 cm wide, apex abruptly, the edges are coarsely serrate, the base is wedge-shaped, and the bottom two leaflets are the smallest; the petiole length is about 1.5 cm, and the bottom two petioles are shorter or nearly sessile.
The total pedicel is extracted from the middle of the petiole of the stem, slightly longer or nearly equal in length to the petiole; umbels, many flowers, pedicels are short, base one with ovate bracteoles; bracts are green, campanulate, apex 5-toothed, lobes are blunt, calyx tube at the base of triangular bracteoles 1; 5 petals, greenish-white, oblong; 5 stamens, filaments are basally slightly wider, anthers are ovate to oblong; 1 pistil, ovary is inferior, 2 rooms, 2 styles, the upper part is forked, lower part is connate; disc ring.
Berry is oblate, paired, red when mature, stalk elongation. It is flowering in July, fruit ripening in September.
Ecological Environment: The Panax quinquefolius L., grows in a mountainous area at altitude about 1,000 meters above sea level. It likes scatter light and diffuses light and adapts to grow on sandy forest soil. Geographical distribution: This species was native to the forest area of northern Wisconsin in USA(the United States of America) and now it also distributed in southern Canada, China.
Growth characteristics: The average annual air humidity in the main producing areas of USA(the United States of America) is 3.6~12.7 °C (Celsius, or 38.48~54.86 degrees Fahrenheit); the average temperature in January is 0~3.9 °C (Celsius, or 32~39.02 degrees Fahrenheit); the average temperature in July is 20.1~24 °C (Celsius, or 68.18~75.2 degrees Fahrenheit), and the annual rainfall is 1,100~1,200 mm. The soil is forest grey-brown soil with a grayish-brown surface, aggregated structure, high humus content, pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) 5.3~6.5, and good permeability.
Characters of herbs: The main root of sun-dried American root with fully-fibrous root is cylindrical or shortly cylindrical, spindle-shaped, with branching roots in the lower part, the main root without branching roots in the lower part, sometimes the main root without branching roots in the lower part is conical or spindle-shaped, with a length of 1.5~9 cm or 3~12 cm, and the diameter is 0.5~3 cm or 0.8~2 cm; the surface is pale yellow or khaki, with dense fine ring lines, longitudinal wrinkles and a few transverse long lenticels. The rhizome has been removed or partially remained, cylindrical or oblate, with a length of 0.1~1.3 cm and a diameter of 0.1~1 cm, with 1-4 pit-shaped stem marks, and sometimes there are adventitious roots. There are no branch roots or 2~6 branch roots, with fibrous roots and verrucous protrusions on them. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, the fracture surface is yellowish-white, with brown or brownish-yellow rings, scattered orange-red or reddish-brown spots on the bark, there are radial cracks. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes slightly sweet and bitter. The herb of better grade has even stripes, the texture is hard, there are tight horizontal stripes on the surface, delicate fragrance, and strong flavor.
Pharmacological actions: ①.calming effect; ②.moderate stimulatory effect to vital center; ③.anti-fatigue effect; ④.anti-diuretic effect; ⑤.hypoxia tolerance; ⑥.anticonvulsive effect; ⑦.promote coagulation; ⑧.reduce plasma specific viscosity; ⑨.increase the red cell membrane fluidity; ⑩.inhibit the rat platelet aggregation induced by collagen, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Supplementing Qi, Nourishing Yin, invigorate lung-Yin, clear deficient fire, clear heat and generate body fluid, generate body fluid and relieve thirst. It is indicated for deficiency of Qi and Yin, excessive fire due to Qi and Yin deficiency, asthenic fever and upset lassitude, lung deficiency and chronic cough, cough and dyspnea with phlegm blood, lose blood, endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat, consumptive thirst), dry pharynx and thirst, dry mouth and dry pharynx, etc.
Administration of Radix Panacis Quinquefolii (Xī Yánɡ Shēn):
Administration Guide of Radix Panacis Quinquefolii (Xī Yánɡ Shēn)
①.Internally:3~6 grams, decoct separately, add to decoction and take; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.8~2 qian (about 2.4~6 grams), decoct separately, add to decoction and take; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams;or prepared to pill, powder.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Radix Panacis Quinquefolii should not be combined with Black False Hellebore. Should avoid prepare with ironware and frying with fire.
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1.Introduction of Xi Yang Shen:American Ginseng or Radix Panacis Quinquefolii.