童養學Tóng Yǎngxué:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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童養學(Tóng Yǎngxué).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 童養學(Tóng Yǎngxué)Alias: 壯吾(Zhuàng Wú)
Popular name: 童養學(Tóng Yǎngxué)English Name: Tong Yangxue, or Yangxue Tong(Given/Family)
Hometown: FuzhouDates: Unknown, about late of 16th to early of 17th century.
Main works: 《傷寒六書纂要辨疑》(Shang Han Liu Shu Cuan Yao Bian Yi) 4 volumes, 《傷寒活人指掌補註辨疑》(Shang Han Huo Ren Zhi Zhang Bu Zhu Bian Yi) 3 volumes,《圖註八十一難經定本》(Tu Zhu Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing Ding Ben) 2 volumes.
Representative works: 《傷寒六書纂要辨疑》(Shang Han Liu Shu Cuan Yao Bian Yi) 4 volumes, 《傷寒活人指掌補註辨疑》(Shang Han Huo Ren Zhi Zhang Bu Zhu Bian Yi) 3 volumes.

Biography and legends:


 童養學Tóng Yǎngxué 童養學(Tóng Yǎngxué), alias 壯吾(Zhuàng Wú), the year of his birth and passing by is unknown, according to year records of his books, he lived since about late years of the 16th to early years of the 17th century. In his early years, he studied as a candidate for the imperial examinations, a tribute student during the Wanli years of the Ming dynasty, was ever assigned a teacher career of Confucianism at Shaowu county, and later as Jiaoshou of Yanping county. Tong's profession was not in medicine or herbalist, but he knows medicine, has an in-depth study on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), and he is good at collating and researching ancient classic medical literature.

Main books and academic thoughts:


 《傷寒六書纂要辨疑》(Shang Han Liu Shu Cuan Yao Bian Yi), is a book on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), 4 volumes: When studying the 《傷寒六書》(Shang Han Liu Shu, or the Six Books of Shang Han) written by Tao Hua, a herbalist in the early years of the Ming dynasty, he discovered that the content contained in Tao’s book contains dozens of years of his study. Although the collection of medical research results during the years represents an important achievement of Tao's research on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), it is complicated and with errors, and the simple and obscure parts are not uncommon. It is circulated for a long time, and it is unavoidable to be criticized and is not conducive to future learning. Tong began to organize the book in his early years, but could not find a better way. Later, inspired by the 《傷寒集要》(Shang Han Ji Yao, or the Essential Collection of Shang Han) written by a famous herbalist 劉會(Liu Hui), he deleted the complicated and simplified based on the Shang Han Liu Shu(the Six Books of Shang Han) to make up for the shortcomings and re-compiled it in orders, the result is his book 《傷寒六書纂要辨疑》(Shang Han Liu Shu Cuan Yao Bian Yi). Tong believes that it is rare to read Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) and get to know its essential points, but Tao Hua's Shang Han Liu Shu(the Six Books of Shang Han) can explain its outlines and has its unique points in distinguishing yin and yang, exterior and interior, deficiency and excess, prescriptions, and medication. "Also distinguish the fallacy of Wang Shuhe and the mistake of Cheng Wuji, and make up for the lack of Zhongjing's book." As a result, selected the good editions of the books in the Shang Han Liu Shu(the Six Books of Shang Han), removed their complexities, made up for their shortcomings, analyzed their correctness and errors, complied them to discern doubts, and wrote them as this books. The 1st volume is a general discussion of the Zhongjing pulse method and the main symptoms of the six-channel diseases; the 2nd and the 3rd volume describe the syndromes of cold-induced diseases, warm disease, and febrile diseases, and 2nd volume recorded the exterior affection and interior affection of Shang Han, the cold and heat discussions of Shang Han, the root cause and symptoms of Shang Han; the 3rd volume lists the 81 symptoms in Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) and Jin Kui Yao Lue(the Synopsis of the Golden Chamber), respectively discussing their differentiation and treatment; the 4th volume lists the treatment methods and forty-four prescriptions, many of which are used by later generations. The whole book systematically sorts out and analyzes Tao's academic experience on cold-induced disease, warm diseases, and febrile diseases.

 《傷寒活人指掌補註辨疑》(Shang Han Huo Ren Zhi Zhang Bu Zhu Bian Yi), a work on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), three volumes, compiled by Tong Yangxue. Tong studied the book 《傷寒活人指掌圖》(Shang Han Huo Ren Zhi Zhang Tu) by herbalist 吴恕如(Wu Shuru) of the Yuan dynasty, and he believed the book could not summarize Zhang Zhongjing's discussion of Shang Han in all details, and the classification of cold-induced diseases and miscellaneous diseases was edited in a confusing order, so he pointed out: "This book saving life while also misguide readers.", so he supplemented the notes with identification of its doubts, and the syndromes were divided into seasonal cold disease, parenteric fever, and transmission from one channel to another, direct attack and so on. The 1st volume is about the transmission and changes of the six channels; the 2nd volume is about various syndromes of Shang Han(actually includes warm disease, epidemic disease, and some miscellaneous diseases); the 3rd volume lists 114 prescriptions. So the orders are clear, and no doubts, easy to understand.

 《圖註八十一難經定本》(Tu Zhu Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing Ding Ben, or Notes on the Eighty-one difficult questions with illustrations), works of medical classics, 2 volumes, annotated by Tong Yangxue of the Ming dynasty, it was published during the Chongzhen years(the middle of the seventeenth century). The 1st volume of this book is the method of diagnosis, also known as 《新刻增補王叔和脈訣圖註定本》(Xin Ke Zeng Bu Wang Shu He Mai Jue Tu Zhu Ding Ben, or the New Engraved Supplementary Book of Wang Shuhe Pulse Formulas), which contains the works 《增補診家指掌》(Zeng Bu Zhen Jia Zhi Zhang) by an anonymous author and 《脈訣》(Mai Jue). Among them, there are many kinds of formulas put into a verse about the contents of pulse diagnosis, pulse condition, inspection, hearing diagnosis, and so on. The 2nd volume is the essay and notes of the 《八十一難經》(Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing, or the Eighty-one Difficult Questions), which is relatively simple and clear, each difficult question is accompanied by an illustration as explanation, which is transcribed from 張世賢(Zhang Shixian)'s works 《圖註八十一難經》(Tu Zhu Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing, or the Illustration Notes on the Eighty-one Difficult Questions). The printed edition of the book in the Ming dynasty survived till today.

References:
  • 1.童養學Tóng Yǎngxué:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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