✵Introduction:The Acupuncture and Moxibustion Theories are majorly composed of the theory of acupuncture, the theory of the meridian system, the acupoints, the meridian points, the extra points, the moxibustion and other techniques derived from acupuncture. Basic terms of acupuncture are introduced.
✵acupuncture and moxibustion: the science of acupuncture and moxibustion is a branch of traditional Chinese medicine which mainly involves the theory of meridians, locations, usage, indications and combinations of acupoints, needling manipulations and applications of ignited moxa in disease treatment through regulation of Qi, blood and zang-fu functions.
✵acupuncturist: one who practices acupuncture and moxibustion.
✵acupuncture or needling: a traditional Chinese therapy in which the functions of the body are regulated for curing diseases by stimulating certain sites on the body with special needles.
✵puncturing: a synonym for needling.
✵puncturing and moxibustion: a collective term for the techniques of acupuncture and moxibustion.
✵acupuncture-moxibustion: a collective term for acupuncture and moxibustion.
✵proportional body cun: or cun, unit of length for measurement in locating acupoint. A certain part of the patient's body is divided into certain divisions of equal length, each of which is taken as one proportional unit for measurement.
✵middle finger cun: the length between the two medial ends of the twisted folds of the patient's middle finger when bent, which is taken as one cun, a unit of measurement.
✵thumb cun: the width of the phalangeal joint of the patient's thumb, which is taken as one cun, a unit of measurement.
✵eye cun: the length between the medial canthus and lateral canthus of the patient's eye, which is taken as one cun, a unit of measurement.
✵palm measurement: the maximal width of the four fingers(namely, the first finger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger) held together with the hand open is taken as a unit of measurement.
✵bone-length measurement: the length of equally divided portions of a certain long bone or of the distance between two anatomical landmarks is taken as one cun, a unit of measurement.
✵needle tip: the pointed end of the needle.
✵needle body: the part of the needle between the tip and the handle.
✵needle root: junction between the handle and the body of the needle.
✵needle handle: that part of the needle held with the fingers in use.
✵filiform needle: a most commonly used acupuncture needle, with length ranging from 15 to 125 mm, and caliber ranging from gauge 26 to gauge 32.
✵three-edged needle: a special kind of acupuncture needle with a triangular head and sharp point used for quick puncture and bloodletting.
✵three-edged needling: a variety of therapeutic method to relieve or cure illness by using a three-edged needle, including pricking, open picking, scattered needling, and collateral puncture.
✵pricking: a fast piercing method in acupuncture, usually with a three-edged needle.
✵scattered puncturing: a method of treatment by pricking with a three-edged needle around the local lesion, also known as leopard-spot puncturing.
✵leopard-spot puncturing: another name of scattered puncturing.
✵collateral puncturing: a therapeutic method using a three-edged needle, in which a vein at the cubital or popliteal fossa is pierced after sterilization of the local skin for letting out a small amount of blood.
✵open picking: a therapeutic method using a three-edged needle, in which the skin is fixed by pressing with one hand, and pierced 1~2 mm and picked open with the other hand.
✵dermal needle: a variety of needling instrument, including plumb-blossom needle and seven-star needle, composed of several short needles used for tapping and pricking certain points or areas of the body.
✵dermal needling: a treatment for relieving or curing illness by using cutaneous needles.
✵plum-blossom needle: a type of cutaneous needle with a bundle of five short fine needles fixed vertically at the end of a handle, the tips of which are clustered in the pattern of the plum blossom petals.
✵seven-star needle: a type of cutanous needle with seven short needles attached vertically to the end of a handle.
✵intradermal needle: a small needle embedded in the skin for continuous stimulation.
✵intradermal needling: a treatment for relieving or curing illness by embedding in the skin a small needle or needles at a certain point(s), also called needle-embedding method.
✵needle-embedding method: another name for intradermal needling.
✵press needle: a small needle which is usually embedded in the auricle, also called thumbtack-type needle.
✵thumbtack-type needle: a small needle for subcutaneous embedding with a head like a thumbtack, also known as press needle.
✵wheatgrain-like needle: a small needle with the head resembling a grain of wheat, which may be embedded subcutaneously at any part of the body.
✵fire needle: heated needle, also known as burnt needle.
✵fire needling: an acupuncture procedure which involves heating the needles, inserting them into the diseased part immediately and withdrawing them at once, often used for treating scrofula and rheumatism.
✵burnt needle: another name for fire needle.
✵stone needle: needle made of stone, used in acupuncture and surgical operation in ancient times.
✵nine needles: a collective term for the various kinds of needles used in ancient times, namely,Chan Zhen or shear needle, Yuan Zhen or round needle, Chi Zhen or spoon needle, Feng Zhen or lance needle, Pi Zhen or stilletto needle, Yuan Li Zhen or round-sharp needle, Hao Zhen or filiform needle, Chang Zhen or long needle and Da Zhen or big needle.
✵shear needle: Chan Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, marked by a big head and sharp tip, used for reducing yang-Qi.
✵round needle: Yuan Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, marked by a round end, used for massage as in the treatment of rheumatic conditions.
✵spoon needle: Chi Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, marked by a round and slightly pointed tip, used to press the meridian vessels for directing Qi and blood.
✵lance needle: Feng Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, also called three-edged needle.
✵stiletto needle: Pi Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, used for draining pus.
✵round-sharp needle: Yuan Lizhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, a small needle 1.6 cun long with a somewhat large and round-sharp end, used for treating abscesses and rheumatic conditions.
✵long needle: Chang Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, a needle with a length of 7 cun, used for deep puncturing.
✵big needle: Da Zhen, one of the nine needles used in ancient times, a large-gauge needle with a length of 4 cun, primarily used to treat edema.
✵bronze figure with acupoints: human figure made of bronze marked with acupuncture points, used for teaching purposes, originated in the 11th century.
✵needle insertion: penetration of the skin with the tip of the needle to a certain depth.
✵method of needle insertion: technique of inserting the needle through the skin.
✵perpendicular insertion: insertion in which the needle enters the skin at a 90° angle.
✵oblique insertion: needle insertion at a 40~60° angle to the skin surface.
✵horizontal insertion: needle insertion at a 10~25° angle to the skin surface.
✵joined puncture: puncture of two or more adjoining points in one insertion of the needle.
✵fingernail-pressing method of insertion: insertion of the needle with the help of finger-tip pressure--a method of insertion for short filiform needles.
✵needle manipulation: manipulating the needle after insertion to produce the desired effect.
✵retaining of needle: retaining the needle in the point for a time to maintain and prolong the effect.
✵needle withdrawal: taking the needle away from the point in which it has been inserted.
✵needle-withdrawal method: method of taking the needle out of the point in which it has been inserted.
✵withdrawal of needle: synonymous with needle withdrawal.
✵getting the Qi: getting the acupuncture feeling, with soreness, heaviness, numbness and distension felt by the patient and tightness of the needle by the practitioner, which are normal sensations of successful acupuncture.
✵method of reinforcement and reduction: reinforcement means to activate and restore a decreased function to normal, while reduction means to expel pathogenic factors and thus to restore hyperactivity to normal.
✵lifting-thrusting reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulation in which reinforcement or reduction is attained by lifting and thrusting with different degrees of force.
✵lifting-thrusting reinforcement-reduction method: for reinforcement the needle is thrust in heavily and lifeted gently, and for reduction, thrust in gently and lifted with force.
✵twirling reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulation in which the differentiation of reinforcing and reducing is based on the degress of twirling and the strength with which the needle is twirled.
✵twirling reinforcing-reducing method: for reduction, the degree of twirling should excess 360°, with heavy manipulation. For reinforcement, the degree of twirling should be less than 180°, with gentle manipulation.
✵breathing reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulation in which reinforcement or reduction is achieved by timing the insertion and withdrawal of the needle according to the phases of the patient's respiration.
✵breathing reinforcing-reducing method: for reinforcement, the needle is listed when the patient exhales and withdrawn when the patient has inhaled to the fullest capacity.For reduction, insertion is made during the patient's inspiration, and withdrawal at the end of expiration.
✵directional reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulation in which reinforcement or reduction is achieved by the direction of needle insertion.
✵directional reinforcing-reducing method: during insertion, the needle is pointed obliquely along the run of the meridian for reinforcement, and against the run of the meridian for reduction.
✵open-close reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulation in which reinforcement or reduction is achieved by closing or opening the acupuncture hole after withdrawing the needle.
✵open-close reinforcement-reduction method: reinforcement is achieved if the acupuncture hole after withdrawing the needle is closed with light finger pressure to prevent the Qi from escaping, and reduction by leaving the hole open to let pathogenic factors out.
✵rapid-slow reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulation in which reinforcement or reduction is achieved by insertion and withdrawal of the needle at different speeds.
✵rapid-slow reinforcing-reducing method: for reinforcement, the insertion is slow, while the withdrawal if rapid, and for reduction, the insertion is swift, while the withdrawal is slow.
✵uniform reinforcement-reduction: a form of needle manipulations indicated in a case with combined excess and deficiency or no distinct excess or deficiency.
✵uniform reinforcing-reducing method: the needle is lifted, thrust and twirled evenly with a proper amplitude and favorable angle.
✵white tiger shaking its head: a form of needle manipulation, in which the practitioner whirls the needlt to the left while inserting, and whirls it to the right while lifting, and then shakes it gently to promote blood circulation.
✵green dragon wagging the tail: a form of needle manipulation, in which the practitioner directs the inserted needle toward the diseased site and gently moves its handle from side to side in order to guide the flow of Qi.
✵burning the mountain: a form of needle manipulation to achieve reinforcement with a local or generalized feeling of cooling.
✵cooling the sky: a form of needle manipulation to achieve reduction with a local or generalized feeling of cooling.
✵Qi-conducting method: a method of conducting the Qi or acupuncture feeling to a certain site, usually the diseased site.
✵finger-pressure conduction of Qi: a method of inducing the acupuncture feeling to travel proximally or distally along the meridian by applying pressure with the finger to the meridian distal or proximal to the acupoint, respectively.
✵needle-direction conduction of Qi: a method of inducing the transmission of the acupuncture feeling by varying the direction of insertion,i.e.,inserting the needle in the same direction as that of the desired Qi transmission.
✵fainting during acupuncture: one of the acupuncture complications, manifested by dizziness, dim eyesight, pale complexion, nausea, palpitations, cold sweats and drop of blood pressure.
✵sticking of the needle: one of the abnormal conditions occurring in acupuncture, when the needle is impossible to be whirled, lifted, thrust, or even withdrawn after it is inserted.
✵bending of the needle: one of the abnormal conditions occurring during acupuncture after insertion of the needle, often due to change of the patient's posture.
✵breaking of the needle: acupuncture accident mostly due to using needles of poor quality, too forceful manipulation that causes powerful muscle contraction, or sudden change of the patient's posture.
1.Acupuncture and Moxibustion:A brief introduction.