Introduction of Shi Wei:Shearer's Pyrrosia Leaf or Folium Pyrrosiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

 
Folium Pyrrosiae(Shearer's Pyrrosia Leaf).

Folium Pyrrosiae Pin Yin Name: Shí Wéi.
 English Name: Shearer's Pyrrosia Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Pyrrosiae.
 Property and flavor: cool, bitter, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Folium Pyrrosiae is the dried leaf of Pyrrosia sheareri(Bak.) Ching, Pyrrosia lingua(Thunb.) Farwell or Pyrrosia petiolosa(Christ)Ching(family Polypodiaceae), used (1).to induce diuresis, relieve dysuria for treating bladder damp-heat, and (2).to clear the lung for relieving cough and dyspnea. It is commonly known as Pyrrosia Leaf, Folium Pyrrosiae, Leaf of Shearer's Pyrrosia, Shí Wéi.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Folium Pyrrosiae(Shearer's Pyrrosia Leaf) as the dried leaf of the species (1). Pyrrosia sheareri(Bak.) Ching., or (2). Pyrrosia lingua(Thunb.) Farwell., or (3). Pyrrosia petiolosa(Christ)Ching. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Folium Pyrrosiae(Shearer's Pyrrosia Leaf) as the dried leaf of the species (1). Pyrrosia sheareri(Bak.) Ching., or (2). Pyrrosia lingua(Thunb.) Farwell., or (3). Pyrrosia petiolosa(Christ)Ching., (4). Pyrrosia gralla(Gies.) Ching., (5). Pyrrosia davidii(Bak.) Ching. They are plants of the Pyrrosia Mirbel genus, the Polypodiaceae family of the Polypodiales order. These 3 commonly used species and other 2 usable species are introduced as:

 Pyrrosia sheareri Bak.Ching. (1).Pyrrosia sheareri(Bak.)Ching.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Pyrrosia sheareri, Pyrrosia sheareri (Baker) Ching, or Lú Shān Shí Wéi. Plant height 20~60 cm. Rhizome transverse, densely lanceolate scaly, margin serrate. Leaves tufted; Petiole stout, 10~30 cm long, articulately borne on rhizome; Leaf blade leathery, broadly lanceolate, 20~40 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, tapering toward the top, acute, base slightly wider, to unequal round auricular or cordate, not spreading; Lateral veins slightly concave on both sides. The sporangium is small, arranged in many lines between lateral veins; No capping.

 Pyrrosia sheareri Bak.Ching. Plants are usually 20~50 cm tall. Rhizome stout, recumbent, densely linear brown scales; Scales grow acuminate, brim has eyelash, touch place is close brown. Leaves proximate, type I; Petiole stout, 2~4 mm thick, 3.5~5 cm long, base densely scaly, up sparsely stellate hair, straw color to gray straw color; Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, most wide near base, tapering up, acuminate, apex obtuse, base truncate or cordate, 10~30 cm long or longer, 2.5~6 cm wide, entire, after dry soft thick leathery, above grayish-green or light brown, a few smooth glabrous, but full of depresses, brown below, by thick layer stellate hair. Main veins thick, both sides are raised, side veins visible, small veins do not show. The sporangium is irregularly arranged between lateral veins, covered with leaves above the base, uncovered, stellate when young, spore dehiscent and brick red when mature.

 Pyrrosia sheareri Bak.Ching. Ecological environment: It grows on tree trunks or stones in forests with an elevation of 500~2,200 meters. It grows on rocks under evergreen broad-leaved forests at an elevation of 1,100~2,400 meters. Love the humid environment, able to withstand -16℃ low temperature, not afraid of frost and snow, air relative humidity above 75%; It prefers scattered light, avoids direct sunlight. Although Pyrrosia sheareri is an epiphyte, it grows more luxuriant in the fertile saprophyte soil. The pyrrosia sheareri is distributed in the area below an altitude of 800 meters above sea level. Due to the change of humidity and soil acidification, coupled with seasonal drought, spores cannot be produced normally, or spores are not mature. The plant distributes in the southwest and the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Pyrrosia sheareri prefers a cool and dry climate, grows on rocks.

 Characters of herbs: leaf type I, leathery and firm. Leaf-blade broadly lanceolate, 20~40 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base auricular oblique, entire. Upper surface is yellowish-green or yellowish-brown, concave in black, lower surface densely covered with short broad stellate hairs. The sporangium is stellate and arranged in rows between lateral veins. Petiole stout, 10~30 cm long, 3~5 mm in diameter.

 Pharmacological actions: The decoction of the herb Folium Pyrrosiae has a certain diuretic effect. Its constituent Isomangiferin has antitussive and expectorant effects, mangiferin has bacteriostasis and anti-herpes simplex virus effects, and chlorogenic acid has the effect of stimulating the central nervous system. The herb Folium Pyrrosiae has a leukogenic effect and against leukocytopenia induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

 Medicinal efficacy: Alleviate water retention and treat stranguria, clear the lung and eliminate heat, clearing away the lung-heat and reduce phlegm, cool blood to stanch bleeding. It is indicated for the treatment of pain from stranguria, gonorrhea, hematuria(blood in urine), lithangiuria(urinary calculus), edema, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), nephritis, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, dysentery, lung heat and cough, phlegm heat cough and asthma, chronic tracheitis, hemoptysis, haematesis, epistaxis(nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), traumatic bleeding, incised(metal-inflicted) wound, ulcer, etc.

 Administration of Folium Pyrrosiae(Shí Wéi): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Folium Pyrrosiae(Shí Wéi)
TCM Books: N/A(CP),Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to powder(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,9~15 grams, or grinded into fine powder. Externally:grinded into fine powder, apply stick(CHMM).


 Pyrrosia lingua Thunb.Farwell. (2).Pyrrosia lingua(Thunb.)Farwell.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Pyrrosia lingua, or Shí Wéi. Plant height is 10~30 cm. Rhizome slender, transverse, densely brown lanceolate scales with petiole, apex acuminate, coat borne, center dark brown, margin light brown, eyelash. Leaf distant, sub 2-type; Petiole 3~10 cm long, dark brown, furrowed, stellate when young, articulately borne on rhizome; Leaf blade leathery, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 6~20 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base acuminate not extending to the petiole, entire. Above green, occasionally stellate hair and concave point, the underside is densely grayish-brown stellate hair; Sterile and fertile leaves homotypic or slightly short and broad; Midrib slightly concave above, uplift below, side veins how much visible, small veins reticulate. The sporangium is full at leaf abaxial surface or upper part, when young is densely covered with star awn shape hair when mature show; No capping.

 Pyrrosia lingua Thunb.Farwell. Medium epiphytic ferns are usually 10~30 cm tall. Rhizome long and transverse, densely scaly; scales lanceolate, long acuminate, light brown, fringed with eyelashes. Leaf distant, sub2-type; Petiole and leaf size and length vary greatly, fertile leaves are usually much longer and narrower than sterile leaves, the leaves of both sides are slightly longer than petiole, less equal length, rarely shorter than petiole. Sterile leaves suboblong, or oblong-lanceolate, widest at lower 1/3, tapering upward, shortly acuminate, basally cuneate, generally 1.5~5 cm wide, 5~10~20 cm long, entire, leathery after drying, grayish-green above, nearly smooth glabrous, light brown or brick-red below, stellate hairy; Fertile leaves are about 1/3 longer than sterile leaves and 1/3-2/3 narrower. Main veins slightly raised below, not significantly concave above, lateral veins significantly raised below, clearly visible, small veins not visible.

 Pyrrosia lingua Thunb.Farwell. Sporangium group is subelliptic, in the side vein is formed neatly many lines are arranged, be full of whole leaf below, or gather in the big upper half of leaf, be covered with stellate hair at the beginning and show light brown, sporangium dehiscence after maturity is exposed and show brick red.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows and is attached to tree trunks or streamside stones in the forest with an altitude of 100~1,800 meters. It prefers a cool and dry climate. The plant distributes in the east, central area, southern area, southwest area of China.

 Characters of herbs: Leaves rolled or flattened, 2-type, leathery. The leaves are lanceolate or rectangular, 6~20 cm long, 2~5 cm wide. The upper surface is yellowish-brown; The main and lateral veins of the lower surface are obvious, and dense stellate hairs of light brown can be observed by a magnifying glass. In addition to stellate hairs, there are still sporangium groups on the underside of the leaves. Petiole length 3~10 cm. Slight smell, mild taste.

 Pyrrosia petiolosa Christ Ching. (3).Pyrrosia petiolosa(Christ)Ching.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yǒu Bǐng Shí Wéi. Plant height is 5~20 cm. Rhizome long and transverse, densely ovate-lanceolate brown scales, margin serrate. Leaves distant, type ii, thickly leathery, glabrous at upper part, neatly arranged with small concave points, densely lined with gray-brown stars below; The spore petiole is much longer than the leaf, about 3~12 cm long, and the vegetative petiole is as long as the leaf. Leaf-blade oblong or ovoid oblong, apex acute or obtuse, base slightly descending, spore leaf usually indented after drying, several tubular; The veins are not obvious. The sporangium is covered abaxially when mature; Sporangium rounded and bilateral, uncovered, hidden in stellate hairs.

 Pyrrosia petiolosa Christ Ching. Plants are 5~15 cm tall. Rhizome slender transverse, when young densely lanceolate brown scales; Scales long caudate acuminate, margin with eyelashes. Leaf type I; Stipitate, usually equal to 1/2~2 times the length of leaf blade, base scaly, stellate hairy upward, brown or grayish-brown; Leaf blade elliptic, acute shortly obtuse, base cuneate, descending, thickly leathery after drying, entire, above grayish beige, depressedly stellate hairy, below thickly stellate hairy, first light brown, later brick red. Main veins slightly raised below, above depression, side veins and small veins are not visible. Sporangium covers the underside of the leaf, spreading and converging at maturity.

 Pyrrosia petiolosa Christ Ching. Ecological environment: The plant grows on dry rocks in mountain areas with an elevation of 200~2,000 meters. Most of them grow on dry exposed rocks at an altitude of 250-2,200 meters. In China, it distributes in the northeast, north, northwest, southwest, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

 Characters of herbs: leaves inwardly rolled into tubules, 2-type, leathery. Leaf-blade rectangular or rectangular lanceolate, a base extending to the petiole, 3~6 cm long, 0.5~2 cm wide. The under surface of the fertile leaves is covered with brown sporangium. Petiole 3.5~11 cm long, longer than a blade, 1~2 mm in diameter.

 Pyrrosia gralla Gies.Ching. (4).Pyrrosia gralla(Gies.)Ching.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xī Nán Shí Wéi. Plant is up to 25 cm. Rhizome long and transverse, densely brown scales, lanceolate, long acuminate, entire. Leaves nearly; Petiole 2~5 cm long, articulately borne on rhizome; Leaf blade leathery, 3~10 cm long, 6~15 mm wide in the middle, narrowly lanceolate, tapering to both ends, stellate hairs longer below, sometimes larger, lateral veins inconspicuous. The sporangium is closely and neatly arranged between the lateral veins. No capping.

 Pyrrosia gralla Gies.Ching. Plant height is 10~20 cm. Rhizome slightly stout, recumbent, densely covered with narrowly lanceolate scales; Scales long acuminate, brown when young, dark in the middle when old, margin serrate. Leaves proximate, type I; Petiole 2.5~10 cm long, straw color, base of living place is scaly, up sparsely stellate hair; Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, middlemost wide, gradually narrow toward both ends, short obtuse tip, or long caudate acuminate, base with narrow wing along petiole long down spread, generally long 10~15 cm, middle wide 0.8~1.5 cm, entire, after dry nearly leathery, above pale green, smooth or sparsely stellate hair, densely hollow, brown below, densely stellate hair. The main veins are not prominent in the lower part, slightly concave in the upper part, and the lateral veins and minor veins are not visible. The sporangium is uniformly dense beneath leaves, uncovered, brown with stellate hairs when young, and brick-red when mature.

 Pyrrosia gralla Gies.Ching. Ecological environment: The plant grows on rocks in the forest, the plant grows and is attached to tree trunks at an altitude of 1,000~2,900 meters or on hillside rocks. It distributes in the southwest and mainly produced in Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan of China.

 Characters of herbs: leaf type I, soft leathery. Leaf-blade lanceolate, 5~10 cm long; The lower surface is covered with thick, loose stellate hairs, the branches of the hairs are long, long needle-like, dark brown, slightly shiny. Sporangium multiline. Petiole about 5 cm long.

 Pyrrosia davidii Bak.Ching. (5).Pyrrosia davidii(Bak.)Ching.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Huá Běi Shí Wéi. Plant is up to 25 cm. The rhizome is long and transverse, densely lanceolate scaly, long acuminate, entire. Ye Yuansheng; Petiole 2~5 cm long, articular; Leaf blade leathery, linear to narrowly lanceolate, 3~8 cm long, 6~15 mm wide in the middle, above sparsely stellate when young, deciduous when old, with concave points, below densely with short thin orange-brown stellate hairs, sometimes curled upward and inwardly when dry. The lateral veins are not obvious. The sporangium is neatly arranged in rows on the back of the leaf. No capping.

 Plant height is 10~20 cm. Rhizome slightly stout, recumbent, densely covered with narrowly lanceolate scales; Scales long acuminate, brown when young, dark in the middle when old, margin serrate. Leaves proximate, type I; Petiole 2.5~10 cm long, straw color, base of living place is scaly, up sparsely stellate hair; Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, middlemost wide, gradually narrow toward both ends, short obtuse tip, or long caudate acuminate, base with narrow wing along petiole long down spread, generally long 10~15 cm, middle wide 0.8~1.5 cm, entire, after dry nearly leathery, above pale green, smooth or sparsely stellate hair, densely hollow, brown below, densely stellate hair. The main veins are not prominent in the lower part, slightly concave in the upper part, and the lateral veins and minor veins are not visible. The sporangium is uniformly dense beneath leaves, uncovered, brown with stellate hairs when young, and brick-red when mature.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on rocks at an altitude of 300~1,800 meters. It is attached to the rock, at an area with an altitude 200~2,500 meters above sea level. The plant distributes in the north, northwest, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, China.

 Characters of herbs: leaves rolled inward into tubular or flattened, type I, leathery. Leaf-blade lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, tapering to both ends, 3~8 cm long, 0.6~1.5 cm wide. The undersurface is densely covered with short thin stellate hairs. Sporangium multiline. Petiole 2~5 cm long, 1.5~3 mm in diameter.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Shi Wei:Shearer's Pyrrosia Leaf or Folium Pyrrosiae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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