Introduction of Tian Zhu Huang:Tabashir or Concretio Silicea Bambusae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Tabashir, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Bambusa textilis McClure., ②.Schizostachyum chinense Rendle., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Tabashir, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Concretio Silicea Bambusae(Tabashir).

Tabashir Pin Yin Name: Tiān Zhú Huánɡ.
 English Name: Tabashir.
 Latin Name: Concretio Silicea Bambusae.
 Property and flavor: cold, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Concretio Silicea Bambusae is the dried masses of secretion in the stem of Bambusa textilis McClure, or Schizostachyum chinense Rendle, used to clear heat, cleanse the heart of phlegm for the treatment of impaired consciousness in high fever and stroke, and also for infantile convulsion. The herb is commonly known as Concretio Silicea Bambusae, Tabashir, Tiān Zhú Huánɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Concretio Silicea Bambusae(Tabashir) is the dried masses of secretion in the stem of Bambusa textilis McClure, or Schizostachyum chinense Rendle, they are plants of the Bambusa Retz. corr. Schreber genus, the Gramineae family (Poaceae, grass family) of the Graminales order.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Concretio Silicea Bambusae(Tabashir) as the dried masses of secretion in the stem of:(1). Bambusa textilis McClure., or (2). Schizostachyum chinense Rendle. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Bambusa textilis McClure.

 Bambusa textilis McClure.:growing plant Botanical description: Bambusa textilis McClure. is also known as Qing Pi Zhu. The rod is up to 8~10 meters, 3~5 cm in diameter, branch tip is curved and dropping, lower part is straight and upright, internode is 40~70 cm long, green, when young, covered with white wax powder, pale brown bristles closely adnate on it, turns glabrous later; Branchlets grow in clusters at middle and lower 7~11th nodes, the central branchlet is thick and long. The sheath around joints of bamboo is caducous, sheath ear is small, and different in size, big sheath ear is narrowly oblong to lanceolate; the sheath tongue edge is dentate serrate; the sheath lobe is upright, and easily falls off. The leaf sheath is glabrous, with an edge on the back, and vertical ribs raised; the ear lobe is usually sickle-shaped, the edge has curved and radial hairs; the paraphyll edge is erose; the leaf blade is linear-lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, generally 9~17 cm long, 1~2 cm wide, the apex is taper-pointed with a subulate thin tip, the base is orbicular or cuneate. False spikelets are solitary or tufted on nodes of flower branches, dark purple when fresh, bronze-coloured when dried; Spikelets contain 5~8 flowerlets, flowerlet on the apex is sterile; peristachyum 1, with 21 veins; lower palea is elliptical shape, with 25 veins; palea is lanceolate, with 2 edges, 10 veins between edges; squamation is different in size, the edge is covered with long cilium; Filaments are slender, anthers are yellow, ovary base has stalks, style is covered with short hirsute, stigma 3, featheriness.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on the riverside, near the village, in areas with low altitude levels. It is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang River area, and widely cultivated in east, middle, and southwest areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is irregular tablets or granules of different sizes, some are 1~2 mm long. The surface is grayish white, milky white, taupe or cadet blue, translucent, and slightly shinny. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easily broken, the fracture surface is shiny, slightly powdery, and has a smooth sensation when touched. The herb is highly absorbent, bubbles are generated when put in water, but insoluble in water. The herb has a slight smell, sweet taste, cool and refreshing. It is sticky when licked with the tongue, a gravel feeling when chewing. The herb of better grade is big, gray-white, shiny, fine texture, light, with strong hygroscopicity.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on common pyogenic cocci and intestinal pathogenic bacteria.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing away heat and eliminating phlegm, cool the heart and calm convulsion, indicated for delirium and coma of pyrexia, phlegmatic coma and not speak of apoplexia, infantile convulsion and hyperspasmia, epilepsy.

 Administration of Concretio Silicea Bambusae (Tiān Zhú Huánɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Concretio Silicea Bambusae (Tiān Zhú Huánɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams,prepare to pill,powder; ②.Internally:3~9 grams,water decoction, or prepare to pill,powder; prepare to finely ground herb powder, take 0.6~1 grams each time.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick at the affected area.

(2).Schizostachyum chinense Rendle.

 Schizostachyum chinense Rendle.:growing plant Botanical description: Schizostachyum chinense Rendle. is also known as Leptocanna chinensis (Rendle) Chia et H.L.Fung., or Bao Zhu. The rod grows up to 5~8 meters high, and 2~3 cm in diameter. Internodes length is 30~45 cm, upper part half is white pilose when young, fall off when old. Branching usually starts from above the 3rd node, stretching horizontally. Rod sheath is purple-red when young, and turns wither yellow when old, its length is normally half of the internode length; Sheath tip is nearly trapezoid; sheath ear is narrow-linear; sheath tongue is almost entire-edge; sheath lobe is narrow triangular, the apex is long and sharping, edge curls inward at the part near to apex. The leaf sheath is glabrous, the apex is purple red; the leaf ear and sheath hair have awns; paraphyll(ligule) is truncated. The leaf blade is lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 15~26 cm long, 3~4.5 cm wide, veinlet 7~9 pairs, small crossvein is obvious, the apex is long and taper-pointed, the base is orbicular or broadly cuneate; petiole is purple red, glabrous, about 5 mm long. The flowering branch is 35~40 cm long, the internode length is 3~6 cm; the secondary branch is 5~10 cm long, the base is held by sheath-like bracts, base holding stem. False spikelet apex is acuminate; bracts are ovate-lanceolate, 7~11 mm long. Spikelet apex is acuminate; peristachyum 2, ovate-lanceolate; sterile lower palea is ovate-lanceolate, with 15 veins, central edge on back surface raised; palea has 6 veins, the apex is with 1 bundle of short hairs, squamation 3, veins are inconspicuous; anther base is with 2 lobes not equal in length; the ovary is nearly rod-shaped, style is long and narrow, stigma is featheriness.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in the evergreen broadleaved shrub, in areas with altitude levels of 1,500~2,500 meters above sea level. It is mainly distributed in Yunnan and other areas in China.
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