Introduction of Fan Xie Ye:Senna Leaf or Folium Sennae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Senna Leaf, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Cassia Angustifolia Vahl., ②.Cassia acutifolia Delile., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Senna Leaf, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Folium Sennae(Senna Leaf).
Pin Yin Name: Fān Xiè Yè.
English Name: Senna Leaf.
Latin Name: Folium Sennae.
Property and flavor: cold nature, tastes sweet, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Folium Sennae is the dried leaflet of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, or Cassia acutifolia Delile, used as a purgative for the treatment of constipation, especially habitual constipation. The herb is commonly known as Folium Sennae, Senna Leaf, Fān Xiè Yè.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Senna Leaf(Fan Xie Ye) as the leaves of the plant species (1). Cassia Angustifolia Vahl., or (2). Cassia acutifolia Delile. It is a plant of the Senna Genus, the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, Papilionaceae, legume, pea family) of the Rosales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Cassia angustifolia Vahl.
Botanical description: The Cassia Angustifolia Vahl., is a plant of the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, Papilionaceae, legume, pea family) and Senna genus, it is commonly known as "Narrow Leaf Cassia Senna", or "Xiá Yè Fān Xiè" (literally means Narrow-Leaf Cassia Senna), herbaceous shrubs, the plant grows up to about 1 meter high. Stipules are ovate-lanceolate, 2~4 mm in length; even-pinnate, alternate; with short stems; leaflets are 5~8 pairs, leaf blade is ovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, length 2~4 cm, width 0.7~1.2 cm, apex is pointed, base is slightly asymmetric, glabrous. Racemes are axillary or terminal; 6~14 flowers, pedicel base is with an ovoid easily falling bracts; 5 sepals, long ovate, slightly unequal; 5 petals, yellow, obovate, below two are larger; 10 stamens, upper 3 small, sterile, central 4 equidistant, the lowermost 3 curved downward, longer on both sides, anther is slightly tetragonal, base is arrow-shaped, 4 rooms; pistil curved like sickle, child room handle, with sparse hair. Pods are rectangular, flat, 4~6 cm long, 1~1.7 cm wide, apex is slightly pointed, not significant, hairy when young; 4~7 seeds, the seed coat is brownish-green, with fine thread-shaped stalk, with warts wrinkles, its flowering period is from September to December, fruiting in March of the following year.
Ecological environment: The Cassia angustifolia Vahl., grows in wild fields or is cultivated. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in Guangxi, Yunnan, and Taiwan of China, also in tropical, east African offshore and islands.
Growth characteristics: The plant Cassia Angustifolia Vahl was native to hot and dry areas. It only takes 3-5 months from sowing to flowering. The average temperature suitable for growth should be 180~200 days with a temperature of less than 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), this period of accumulated temperature is not less than 4000~4500 °C (Celsius). The soil requires loose, well-drained sandy or alluvial soil, slightly acidic or neutral soil is preferred.
Characters of herbs: The small leaves are mostly complete and flat, oval-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5~5 cm or 2~6 cm long, 0.4~1.5 cm or 0.4~2 cm wide; The major vein is prominent, the tip of the leaf apex is protruding into a spike tip, the entire edge is slightly asymmetrical at the base, the upper surface is yellow-green, the undersurface is light yellow-green, there are sparse hairy hairs on both surfaces, the main vein on the undersurface is prominent, and the veins are feathered. The leaves are leathery. The herb has a weak and specific odor, it tastes slightly bitter, slightly sticky. The herb of better grade has large, complete leaves, green color, few stems, and no sediment impurities.
(2).Cassia acutifolia Delile.
Botanical description: The Cassia acutifolia Delile., is a plant of the Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, Papilionaceae, legume, pea family) and Senna genus, it is commonly known as "Sharp Leaf Cassia Senna", or "Jiān Yè Fān Xiè" (literally it means Sharp-Leaf Cassia Senna), the leaf is lanceolate or long oval, slightly curly, 1.5~5 cm, wide 0.4~2 cm, entire, the apex of the tip is short or slightly protruding, leaf base is asymmetric, both sides are slim and furry slightly raised veins, leathery, weak and specific odour, slightly bitter taste. Pointed leaves Senna, leaf surface of the lower surface of single-cell non-glandular hair length 64 ~ 280 μm, apex is slightly pointed wall with small verrucous protrusions, stoma cells are 2 to 4. The difference with the Cassia Angustifolia Vahl. is 4~6 pairs of small leaves, long ovoid, apex is pointed, base is asymmetric, gray-green leaves on the back; flowers are smaller; pod is oval, width is 2~2.5 cm.
Ecological environment: The Cassia acutifolia Delile., grows in wild fields or cultivated. Geographical distribution: This species is distributed in Hainan, Yunnan, Taiwan of China, Egypt, the Nile valley in tropical Africa.
Characters of herbs: The small leaves are broadly lanceolate or oblong, 2~4 cm long and 0.7~1.2 cm wide; The apex of the leaf is pointed or slightly convex, entire edge, the leaf base is asymmetrical, the uppersurface is light green, the undersurface is grayish-green, slightly short hair, the texture of the herb is thin and brittle, slightly leathery. The herb has a weak and specific odor, it tastes slightly bitter, slightly sticky. The herb of better grade has large, complete leaves, green color, few stems, and no sediment impurities.
Pharmacological actions: ①.purgative effect; ②.antibacterial effect (infusion can inhibit a variety of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus proteus, Shigella dysenteriae, alpha streptococcus, Monilia albicans, and some pathogenic dermatophytes); ③.antibiotic effect; ④.archery poisoning effects.
Medicinal efficacy: Purge heat and removing food stagnation, purge heat and relax the bowels, relax the bowels, removing food retention and stagnation, stanch bleeding, alleviate water retention. It is indicated for heat accumulation and food retention in the stomach, heat accumulation and constipation, habitual constipation, constipation, and abdominal pain, food retention in the stomach and abdominal distention, edema and distention fullness, gastric and duodenal ulcer bleeding, etc.
Administration of Folium Sennae (Fān Xiè Yè):
Administration Guide of Folium Sennae (Fān Xiè Yè)
①.Internally:2~6 grams, add later for decoction, or brewing with boiling water; ②.Internally:water decoction, add later,1~2 qian(about 3~6 grams);prepare to finely ground herb powder, 0.5~1 qian (about 1.5~3 grams);or brewing in boiling water and take; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams, add later;or brewing up and drink;or prepare to finely ground herb powder,1.5~3 grams.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Folium Sennae should be used cautiously or forbidden using during pregnancy.
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1.Introduction of Fan Xie Ye:Senna Leaf or Folium Sennae.