方有執Fāng Yǒuzhí:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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方有執(Fāng Yǒuzhí).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 方有執(Fāng Yǒuzhí)Alias: 中行(Zhōng Xíng),or 九龍山人(Jiǔ Lóng Shān Rén),or 九山山人(Jiǔ Shān Shān Rén)
Popular name: 方有執(Fāng Yǒuzhí)English Name: Fang Youzhi, Youzhi Fang(Given/Family)
Hometown: Shè XiànDates: about year 1523~1594 AD.
Main works: 《傷寒論條辨》(Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian, or the entries' identification of Shang Han Lun) 8 volumes.
Representative works: 《傷寒論條辨》(Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian, or the entries' identification of Shang Han Lun) 8 volumes.

Biography and legends:


 a portrait of 方有執Fāng Yǒuzhí 方有執(Fāng Yǒuzhí), a scholar of Shang Han(the exogenous febrile diseases), ever lived during the Ming Dynasty, alias 中行(Zhōng Xíng), self-titled 九龍山人(Jiǔ Lóng Shān Rén) or 九山山人(Jiǔ Shān Shān Rén), his year of birth and passing away is 1523~1594 AD, other record stated that the year of his passing away is unknown, literally, his given name 有執(Yǒuzhí) means "loyal to or insistence", he was native to Shexian County of Anhui. For two of his wives and five children died of illness in years, and he survived from a severe disease too, he worked hard to study medicine, especially good in the study of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), and praised Zhongjing.

 方有執(Fāng Yǒuzhí) did not study medicine in his early years, he stated in the preface of his book, because of "lost wife twice" and his children "passed away added up to five", and their diseases all started from Shang Han of wind-affection, he repeatedly sought treatment for them, while herbalists around could not know the cause of the disease, he was also suffering from the disease and almost lost his own life, during the days "the misery and sorrow, sorrowful and boring" he learned about Zhongjing's two books Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) and Jin Kui Yao Lue(the Synopsis of the Golden Chamber). So he "dedicated to this," keenly and energetically, involved in all sorts of hardships, studied it for many years, and later was enlightened at the age when hairs at his sideburns turned white, his intensively study is similar to his given name: "loyal and insistence". Fang Youzhi is well-known for his refined study on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), he rearranged the entries of the book.

Main books and academic thoughts:


 another portrait of 方有執Fāng Yǒuzhí Through his study on the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), Fang Youzhi believes that the original work of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) is very old, especially after the war in the late years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the compendium was lost and confused, and the original appearance of Zhongjing’s book was actually lost for long years, the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) edited by Wang Shuhe and Cheng Wuji, has mistakes and errors, which misleads later generations of herbalists in learning the book, and for the first time he put forward the missing slip theory of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). Since then, Fang You insisted on seeking the threads of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), carefully considered the original intention of Zhang Zhongjing, carefully re-examined and revised the editing of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), systematically classified and summarized the entries of the book, and adjusted the order of arrangement, strive to recover the original edition of the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). And he spent his energy for more than 20 years on this subject, compiled the book 《傷寒論條辨》(Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian, or the entries' identification of Shang Han Lun) and finished it in the Wanli 17th year (the year 1589 AD), the book was published in the Wanli 20th year (the year 1592 AD). The block copy during the Wanli period survived till today. Fang Youzhi's study about the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), advocating that one should be mindful of Zhongjing's heart and pursue Zhongjing's intentions. He dared to doubt the past, to innovate, and rearranged the entries of the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). This was the beginning of the missing slip theory school of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), which opened the prelude to the contention of schools of thought on the Exogenous Febrile Diseases. His academic thoughts have made a great contribution to the academic study on exogenous febrile diseases. Fang Youzhi's main theories and achievements are mainly presented in the "revise again of missing slips" and "theory of wind and cold affect Ying and Wei".

 Fang Youzhi revised the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) by adopting the method of moving and deletion, and carried out a comprehensive revision and editing. He divided the entries on Tai Yang disease into the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd volumes. The Yang Ming diseases and Shao Yang diseases were combined into the 4th volume, the Tai Yin disease, Shao Yin disease, and Jue Yin disease were combined into the 5th volume, and he combined the entries of dampness and wind-dampness disease, miscellaneous disease, Huo Luan(acute gastroenteritis), Yin Yang exchange, recovery after overfatigue, into the 6th volume. He believed that the chapter "Bian Jing Shi Bing Zheng(the chapter about differentiation of convulsion and dampness syndrome)" is still credible, and that there is part of the original content in the two chapters of "Bian Mai Fa(methods of pulse)" and "Ping Mai Fa(methods of normal pulse)", he combined them into the chapter "Bian Mai Fa", the 7th volume. He believed that the chapters related to "Han Tu Xia Ke Yu Bu Ke"(perspiration with vomiting or purgation or not) were compiled by Wang Shuhe himself, and he edited it into the 8th volume. The revision of the Tai Yang chapter is the biggest in the book. Fang believes that the pathogens of wind and cold invade the Ying system and Wei system separately. In his book Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian(the entries' identification of Shang Han Lun), he emphatically explained the source of wind and cold in the syndromes of the Wei system affected by wind, the Ying system affected by cold, the Ying and Wei systems affected by wind and cold both. The wind affects the Wei system, so the entries about Wei affected by wind were edited into the 1st volume, cold affection then hurt the Ying system, so the entries of Ying affected by cold and other entries starts from "Shang Han(cold affection)" were edited into the 2nd volume; at the same time, entries about the Ying and Wei are affected by wind and cold both were edited into the 3rd volume. These are the three types of exogenous wind-cold disease that he advocates. Therefore, he believes that the affection of Wei, the affection of Ying, and the affection of Ying and Wei is the outline of the Tai Yang diseases. His identification and revision order of the entries of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) is indeed innovative, which enhances the systematic and logical nature of the original text, and especially reflects his rich practical experience and theoretical understanding of the exogenous febrile diseases. His book affected many famous herbalists of later generations, for example, the works Shang Lun Pian by later herbalist Yu Chang mostly used Fang Youzhi's book as a chief source. After Yu Chang's vigorous promotion, it was summarized as the "three outlines tripartite confrontation" theory, and the approvers have risen, later herbalists 喻昌(Yù Chāng), 張璐(Zhāng Lù), 程應旄(Chéng Yīngmáo), 吳儀洛(Wú Yíluò), 周揚俊(Zhōu Yángjùn), 黃玉璐(Huáng Yùlù), 章楠(Zhāng Nán) inherited the theory of Fang Youshi and formed the missing slip theory school of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), which promoted and developed the theory of exogenous febrile diseases.

 Fang Youzhi states in the postscript of his book that: "If there are thousands of words, move and edit a few entries, examine and correct a few words, the reason for the name Shang Han Lun, for it is the remained works of Zhong Jing; the reason for the name Tiao Bian, correct the mistakes from Wang Shuhe and recover its original orders.". This is what he wants to achieve by "revising the compilation".

 Fang believes that: the cold-induced diseases should be based on the outlines of the six channels, the six channels should be based on the outline of Tai Yang, and the Tai Yang chapters should be bases on the outline of wind affect Wei, cold affect Ying, wind and cold affect Ying and Wei both. Regarding wind and cold affect Ying and Wei, Fang Youzhi has a unique opinion, he believes that wind and cold affect Ying and Wei is the common pathological basis of all Tai Yang diseases, thus classified the Tai Yang diseases into three kinds: wind affects and hurt Wei, cold affects and hurt Ying, wind and cold affect and Ying Wei both get hurt. It profoundly reminds the law of the onset, transmission, and consequences of Tai Yang diseases, which is an elaboration of Zhongjing's theory.

References:
  • 1.方有執Fāng Yǒuzhí:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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