汪琥Wāng Hǔ:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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汪琥(Wāng Hǔ).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 汪琥(Wāng Hǔ)Alias: 苓友(Líng Yǒu),青溪子(Qīng Xīzǐ)
Popular name: 汪苓友(Wāng LíngYǒu)English Name: Wang Hu, or Hu Wang(Given/Family).
Hometown: Changzhou,JiangsuDates: Unknown,about early to late of 17th century.
Main works: 《傷寒論辨證廣註》(Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu),《中寒論辨證廣註》(Zhong Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu),《痘疹廣金鏡錄》(Dou Zhen Guang Jin Jing Lu),《養生君主編》(Yang Sheng Jun Zhu Bian).
Representative works: 《傷寒論辨證廣註》(Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu),《中寒論辨證廣註》(Zhong Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu).

Biography and legends:


 汪琥Wāng Hǔ 汪琥(Wāng Hǔ), a herbalist who lived during the Qing dynasty, alias苓友(Líng Yǒu), self-title is 青溪子(Qīng Xīzǐ), he was native to Changzhou, Jiangsu, his years and dates of birth and passing away are unknown in details, he mainly lived during the middle to the late period of the 17th century. He studied Confucianism at a young age and then turned to study medicine. Wang Hu has an in-depth study in Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) and unique attainments, elaboration, and innovative views. He was a great medical scientist and herbalist who grasped the essence of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) during the Qing dynasty.

Main books and academic thoughts:


 汪琥(Wāng Hǔ) attained accomplishments in the study of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), he extensively read various works on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) by predecessors. His major works are 《傷寒論辨證廣註》(Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu), 《中寒論辨證廣註》(Zhong Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu), 《痘疹廣金鏡錄》(Dou Zhen Guang Jin Jing Lu), 《養生君主編》(Yang Sheng Jun Zhu Bian).

 《傷寒論辨證廣註》(Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu, or the Extended Annotations on the Syndrome Differentiation of the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), a monograph on the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), fourteen volumes, it was compiled and finished by 汪琥(Wāng Hǔ) until the Kangxi 19th year(the year 1680 AD), the book was first engraved and published in the Kangxi 19th year(the year 1680 AD), the edition was a self-engraved copy of Wang Hu in Xiaojiaxiang, Wujun county. Based on the theory of Su Wen(the Plain Questions) that "The heat diseases, are all in the category of cold-induced diseases.", Wang Hu extracted the original text of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) which belonged to heat diseases(febrile diseases) of the six channels and treatments, and extensively referred to the theories of various schools to identify and make annotations on these entries one by one. About the treatment method, the prescriptions are not stickled to those established prescriptions in Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), at the end of each article, the effective prescriptions for the treatment of febrile diseases from the Jin dynasty to the Ming dynasty are selected as auxiliary wings(supplement). These made up for those shorts in Zhongjing's works. Wang Hu annotated the part 《傷寒論例》(Shang Han Lun Li), use illustrations to note on the six channels of hands and feet, and the illustrations of the acupuncture method and acupoints for febrile diseases. To elaborate the contents about the heat diseases(the febrile diseases) in the works Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). Wang Hu holds a viewpoint that the diseases which pathogens transfer in channels are heat diseases(febrile diseases), the disease from direct attack(of the cold pathogen) is cold syndromes, these two kinds of diseases should not be confused. Thus, he analyzed and edited the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) into two books, there are four editions of the book survived till today.

 《中寒論辨證廣註》(Zhong Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu, or the Extended Annotations on the Syndrome Differentiation of the Cold Direct Attack), a monograph on the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), it was compiled and finished by 汪琥(Wāng Hǔ), the book was first engraved and published in the Kangxi 19th year(the year 1680 AD). Wang Hu selected the original entries which belong to true cold diseases from Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), gave differentiation and annotations entry by entry, the edition styles follow his book 《傷寒論辨證廣註》(Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu), the contents are about the pulse syndromes differentiation and treatment methods of Tai Yang, Yang Ming, Tai Yin, Shao Yin, Jue Yin disease, attached with "varied treatment methods of cold direct attack from later scholars". The author stated that among the cold-induced diseases of the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), the diseases which pathogens transfer in channels are heat diseases(febrile diseases), the disease from direct attack(of the cold pathogen) is cold syndromes, these two kinds of diseases should not be confused in treatment. Thus, he analyzed the book and divided it into 2 books. In terms of distinguishing annotations, he has collected lots of essential discussions from previous scholars and edited them with starting in the form "Wang Hu notes:" as a formed sentence to elaborate his views. This book is often attached at the end of his book, Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu. The original engraved edition copy by Wang Hu himself, and various other copies, survived till today.

 Wang Hu believes that most of the original texts of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases)(the edition compiled by Wang Shuhe) are Zhang Zhongjing's original works, but he believes that "the pulse method in the first volume, and articles titled perspiration, vomiting, purgation and so on after the seventh volume, were added by Wang Shuhe" should be deleted, he also deleted "the three syndromes such as convulsion, dampness syndromes and Ye syndromes in the second volume, and the Huo Luan syndrome in the seventh volume". Because they are miscellaneous diseases, he believes that the interpretation of medical classics should be based on the reality of clinical practice, and based on the purpose to clarify the intentions of each entry, so that there are no errors in treatment applications.

 Regarding the editing order of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), Wang Hu believes that Zhongjing’s six channels should be adhered to, and the two channels of Hand and Foot should be included. Therefore, his editing works are sorted by the orders of the six channels. Some adjustments have been made to chapters of the six channels from Wang Shuhe. In Wang Shuhe’s compilation, some entries and syndromes of Yangming disease and Shaoyang disease are listed in the Taiyang Chapter, some entries of Taiyang disease are listed in the Yangming Chapter, and there are entries about cold direct attack diseases are mixed in the Taiyang disease and Yangming disease, and those mixed in the Three-yin febrile diseases have all been reformed, where the three-yang diseases are re-edited to the three-Yang chapters, and the three-yin febrile diseases are re-edited to the three-Yin chapters. This sorting method is different from any previous school of Shang Han, but it reflects his pragmatic and rigorous character of the study. In clinical practice, Wang Hu's proposition appears more reasonable.

 Wang Hu followed the view on heat disease(febrile diseases) in the Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), "The heat diseases, are all in the category of cold-induced diseases." and believes that "people who are sick with the cold-induced disease are all febrile diseases." He believes that Zhong Jing’s work is based on the heat diseases theory of Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), and Zhong Jing’s book is the best one among all books on cold-induced diseases, as he stated: "among diseases, people suffer more from cold-induced diseases, and among the books on cold-diseases the book of Zhongjing is sacred. For there are three hundred and ninety-seven methods for one disease, one hundred thirteen prescriptions, very detailed, so widely! But don’t know Zhongjing’s book, which is based on the heat diseases theory from the Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), and its discussions on transmissions and changes of the six channels, is not unidentifiable and not unclear." Based on the differences of pathogenesis, transmission, and sequelae, he divided the cold-induced syndromes in the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) into cold direct attack syndromes and cold-induced diseases. Taking the symptoms of cold and heat as the outline, he organized the entries and articles of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). He compiled all the entries that belong to the heat syndrome(febrile syndromes) into his book Shang Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu(the Extended Annotations on the Syndrome Differentiation of the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). At the same time, he also wrote the theory of differentiating cold-induced diseases and non-cold-induced diseases at the beginning of the first volume. In his preface, he also emphasized that cold-induced disease is a heat syndrome. It is different from the cold syndrome, as he stated "Although the disease name of the cold-induced disease is cold, all the symptoms seen are heat, so it is feared that future generations may use the name of cold and mistakenly apply the heat prescription, so the cold-induced disease is not cold. While for the case of cold direct attack and deep into the three-Yin, those are rare and only one or two among ten cases. The symptom of these diseases are all cold, and they are very different from the heat syndrome, so they are called true cold, and compiled into another book.". He edited those entries that belong to the cold syndromes separately into the book Zhong Han Lun Bian Zheng Guang Zhu(the Extended Annotations on the Syndrome Differentiation of the Cold Direct Attack). He explained that heat syndrome is a disease of cold-induced disease, and the cold syndrome is a cold direct attack disease. In terms of pathogenesis, the difference between them is that "in patients with a cold direct attack, both interior and exterior symptoms are cold and more are deficient; in patients with the cold-induced disease, their symptoms are cold at exterior and hot at the interior and more are excess. In addition, the cold is true for cold direct attack disease, and the cold for the cold-induced disease is false." About the transmission, “the cold-induced disease has transmission and changes, and its development is slightly slower; the cold direct attack normally attack directly, its development is the most urgent.” In terms of sequelae, “for the mistreated cold-induced disease from perspiration, vomiting, and purgation method, it is still treatable and hopes to survive; But for the mistreated cold direct attack disease from perspiration, vomiting, and purgation method, will die soon and no hope to survive by a retreatment.". The cold-induced diseases he classified are cold-induced diseases in a broad sense(or exogenous febrile diseases).

 For the entries and articles moved and re-edited by him, Wang Hu annotated the source, etc., commented on them, and also kept the original appearance of the entries from the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) to the maximum extent.

 Wang Hu elaborated Zhongjing's prescriptions with details, and he also put forward his own unique opinions on some herbs whose names are not very clear in the original records of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). For example, whether the herb "Shu" in the Wuling San(the Wuling powder) uses Cang Zhu(Atractylodes Rhizome) or Bai Shu(White Atractylodes Rhizome), he gave a discussion in details; Knowing the limitations of prescriptions of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) for disease treatment, based on Zhongjing's prescriptions, Wang Hu added many effective prescriptions from later generations after Zhang Zhongjing, and compared these new prescriptions by later generations with the original prescriptions of Zhang Zhongjing, explanations on the innovations are given, fine and ingenious features of them are explained. Wang Hu's exposition and application of prescriptions have the features imitating the ancients master without being rigid but is flexible. He is indeed a great medical scientist and herbalist who has grasped the essence and nature of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), and he is worthy of being followed by later generations.

References:
  • 1.汪琥Wāng Hǔ:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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