王肯堂Wáng Kěntáng:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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王肯堂(Wáng Kěntáng).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 王肯堂(Wáng Kěntáng)Alias: 宇泰(yǔ tài)损仲(sǔn zhòng),損庵(sǔn ān),念西居士(niàn xī jū shì)
Popular name: 王肯堂(Wáng Kěntáng)English Name: Wang Kentang, Kentang Wang.
Hometown: Jin TanDates: about 1552~1638 AD.
Main works: 《證治準繩》(Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng, or Standards of Diagnosis and Treatment).
Representative works: 《證治準繩》(Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng, or Standards of Diagnosis and Treatment).

Biography and legends:


 a portrait of 王肯堂Wáng Kěntáng 王肯堂(Wáng Kěntáng), his years of birth and passing away is 1549 to 1613 AD, alias 宇泰(yǔ tài), or 損仲(sǔn zhòng), self-title 損庵(sǔn ān) or 念西居士(niàn xī jū shì), a native of Jintan. Wang Kentang was born in an official family, and his father, 王樵(Wang Qiao), ever passed the imperial examination and achieved Jinshi. Wang Kentang read many books and studied medicine because of his mother's illness. In Wanli's 17th year(the year 1589 AD) he passed the imperial examination and achieved Jinshi, then was assigned an official career. He had contacts with the missionary Matteo Ricci. In Wanli 20th year (the year 1592 AD), he was falsely demoted because of his outspoken anti-Japanese writing. Re-study the medical theory again, can do surgery to remove the tumor around the socket of the eyeball, and can cure the madness.

 Wang is committed to medicine study because of his mother's illness. In 1570, his younger sister was dying and was cured by Wang. Since then many patients came to his house and sought treatment. His father Wang Qiao thought it was harmful to his career and stopped it. After returning home, he started to learn medicine again. Wang had a very wide friendship. In the autumn of 1579, he met famous herbalist Miao Xiyong in Baixia (today's Nanjing) and had a good friendship. Wang had contact with 利玛窦(Matteo Ricci), a missionary of Italy who came to China, and discussed the calendar with him. He also discusses mathematics with 郭澹(Guo Dan), discusses painting and calligraphy with 董其昌(Dong Qichang), and discuss meditation with 曾柏(Zeng Bai), are beneficial to him to improve his knowledge structure and carry out the medical study. He was once awarded the JianTao of the Imperial Academy and participated in the compilation and revision of the official history of the Ming dynasty.

 Because the imperial court refused to accept his anti-Japanese skepticism, he resigned and returned to his hometown with the cause of illness, and since then returned to his childhood favorite medicine study. While staying at home, he was treating people’s illnesses while writing medical books. He successfully performed resection for a patient with a malignant tumor around his orbit, and ever replanted ears. He cured a wealthy young man from mental illness caused by excessive surprises of imperial examinations.

Main books and academic thoughts:


 another portrait of 王肯堂Wáng Kěntáng Wang compiled 《證治準繩》(Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng, or Standards of Diagnosis and Treatment) in 44 volumes,《醫論》(Yi Lun, or the Medical Theory) 4 volumes, 《醫辨》Yi Bian, or the Medical Discussion) 4 volumes, 《新鐫醫論》(Xin Juan Yi Lun, or the Newly Compiled Medical Theory) 3 volumes, 《胤產全書》(Yin Chan Quan Shu) 1 volume, 《醫鏡》(Yi Jing, or the Medical Mirror), ever compiled 《古代醫統正脈全書》(Gu Dai Yi Tong Zheng Mai Quan Shu, or the Ancient Medical System Pulses Complete Book), containing 44 kinds of books, published by Wu Mian School, the book 《郁岡齋至麈》(Yu Gang Zhai Zhi Niao) was written by Wang in the year 1602, collected his reading and learning, there are thirty to fourty percent of it is medical content, and described his contacts with Matteo Ricci, in addition, he also wrote other annotation books 《〈尚書〉要旨》(Shang Shu Yao Zhi),《〈論語〉義府》(Lun Yu Yi Fu, or Annotations on the Analects of Confucius),《律例箋釋》(Lv Li Jian Shi), and so on.

 a stone statue of 王肯堂Wáng Kěntáng Wang Kentang’s contribution to the study of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases): Although Wang Kentang was not a great master of Shang Han study, but the book 《傷寒準繩》(Shang Han Zhun Sheng, or the Standards of the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) collected his studying with Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), studying the theory of Shang Han, and treating exogenous febrile disease, the effort of discussing the thoughts of the Shanghan School, had an impact on the study of Shang Han in later generations. Wang Kentang respects Zhang Zhongjing and believes that Zhang Zhongjing is similar to Confucius of the Confucian school, well-known herbalists in the last 2000 years, and no one who has not learned from Zhongjing’s book. He believes that the method of Shang Han can not only cure the exogenous febrile disease. And it can be used to treat miscellaneous diseases. His Shang Han Zhun Sheng(the Standards of the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) is an application of Zhang Zhongjing’s Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). The book first lists the introduction to prefaces, differentiation of internal and external affection, and differentiation of similar Shang Han syndromes, followed by the general case of Shang Han, which describes the four-seasonal transmission of Shang Han. The perspiration, vomiting, purgation methods, heal the severe syndrome, the Yin and Yang, the exterior and interior, miscellaneous diseases of Shang Han, various similar syndromes, miscellaneous syndromes, and complexion inspection; furthermore, it is divided into Tai Yang diseases, Yin and Yang diseases, etc. It is a detailed treatise on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), published in the year 1604 AD.

References:
  • 1.王肯堂Wáng Kěntáng:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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