張璐Zhāng Lù:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.
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石頑老人(Shí Wán Lǎo Rén)
Zhang Lu,or Lu Zhang(Given/Family)
about 1617~1699 AD
《傷寒纘論》(Shang Han Zuan Lun), 《傷寒緒論》(Shang Han Xu Lun),《張氏醫通》(Zhang Shi Yi Tong),《千金方衍義》(Qian Jin Fang Yan Yi),《傷寒舌鑒》(Shang Han She Jian),《診宗三昧》(Zhen Zong San Mei),《本經逢原》(Ben Jing Feng Yuan).
《傷寒纘論》(Shang Han Zuan Lun), 《傷寒緒論》(Shang Han Xu Lun).
Biography and legends:
張璐(Zhāng Lù), alias 路玉(Lù Yù), according to records his years of birth and passing away is 1617~1699 AD, he lived since the late years of the Ming dynasty to the early years of the Qing dynasty, self-title 石頑老人(Shí Wán Lǎo Rén) in his old age, native to Changzhou in the south of the Yangtze River(today's Suzhou, Jiangsu). He is the grandson of 張少峰(Zhāng Shǎofēng), an investigation ambassador of the Ming dynasty. Zhang Lu was wise and receptive in childhood, studied Confucianism, and also studied medicine. After the fall of the Ming dynasty, he gave up the study of Confucianism and turned to learn medicine, lived in Dongting Mountain for more than ten years. He practiced medicine and wrote books, and he was tireless until old age. Sixteen years after he left his hometown, he compiled and brought many medical books collected and return to his hometown. His sons 张登(Zhāng Dēng) and 张倬(Zhāng Zhuō) also studied medicine, and both have related works.
Main books and academic thoughts:
Zhang Lu has been involved in academics and medicine throughout his life, especially in the study of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). Collected his study over 30 years, he compiled the books 《傷寒纘論》(Shang Han Zuan Lun), 《傷寒緒論》(Shang Han Xu Lun). His others works are:《诊宗三昧》(Zhen Zong San Mei), 1 volume(1680 AD), about the study of pulse identification, 《千金方衍义》(Qian Jin Fang Yan Yi), 30 volumes, about the study on the prescriptions of herbalist Sun Simiao's book Qian Jin Yao Fang(the Invaluable Prescriptions), herbal works 《本經逢原》(Ben Jing Feng Yuan), 4 volumes(1695 AD), which elaborate herb medicine and its applications, and comprehensive medical work 《張氏醫通》(Zhang Shi Yi Tong).
In his study on exogenous febrile diseases, Zhang Lu believed that the Shang Han(the exogenous febrile diseases) and miscellaneous diseases are separable and inseparable. His important point of study on Shang Han emphasizes "Yin Yang Chuan Zhong(Yin and Yang transfer to the Middle)" as its outline, and he explained it in detail. The outlines of the Yin and Yang channel transmission and the direct attack, syndrome differentiation and the identifications analyzing of six channels, Zang-viscera or Fu-viscera, the cold and heat of the exterior and interior, are summarized. Regarding the six channels syndromes in Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), Zhang believes that at the beginning or onset of the Tai Yang disease, they can be divided into three syndromes: Feng Shang Wei(wind attack and hurt Wei), Han Shang Ying(cold attack and hurt Ying), and Feng Han Shang Ying Wei(wind and cold attack then Ying and Wei are hurt). The Guizhi Decoction, Ma Huang Decoction, and Qinglong Decoction are applied separately and accordingly. Zhang Lu believes that the three-Yin cold syndromes are all related to Shaoyin, and the three-Yin cold syndromes should be centered on Shao Yin, that is, the so-called treatment aiming at its root causes(searching for the primary cause of disease in treatment.).
Zhang Lu's study on exogenous febrile diseases also pays attention to the identification of several warm diseases, and pays attention to the application of tongue diagnosis in the differentiation and treatment of exogenous febrile diseases, which will have a certain impact on the development of warm disease study(the science of epidemic febrile disease of traditional Chinese medicine) in the future. For the treatment of miscellaneous diseases, he paid attention to syndrome differentiation and was good at warming and tonic methods, becoming one of the herbalists of the warming and tonic schools in the Ming and Qing dynasties. It is precise because of Zhang Lu's great academic influence that he was later called one of the three great medical experts in the early period of the Qing dynasty.
《傷寒纘論》(Shang Han Zuan Lun, or the Inherited Discussions on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), written by Zhang Lu of the Qing dynasty, 2 volumes, it is an annotation works on the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) by Zhang Lu, the book was published in the Kangxi 6th year(the year 1667 AD). Zhang Lu extensively reviewed previous annotations on the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) from various schools, and felt deeply that the academic opinions were "different but not the same". Later, he got the book 《傷寒論條辨》(Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian, or the entries' identification of Shang Han Lun) by herbalist Fang Youzhi of the Ming dynasty and 《尚論篇》(Shang Lun Pian) by herbalist Yu Chang of the early Qing dynasty, and widely seeking secret books about it, after repeated deliberations and intensively study, "the so-called divergent ones will gradually return to consistency." He then accumulates 30 years of experience in the study of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), annotated and interpreted Zhang Zhongjing's book, so there comes the book 《傷寒纘論》(Shang Han Zuan Lun, or the Inherited Discussions on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases). The book is based on the edition order of Yu Chang's compilation, took annotations from various schools, combined with his views, for annotations and elaborations. The first volume lists the disease and syndromes of the six channels, and the second volume collected articles about Zang Jie(accumulation of yin cold in viscera), Xiong Pi(distention and fullness in the chest), He Bing Bing(disease involving two or more channels, compilations), Wen Re Jing Shi Ye(warm disease, febrile disease, convulsion, dampness disease, Ye syndrome), etc.
《傷寒緒論》(Shang Han Xu Lun, or the Continued Discussions on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), written by Zhang Lu of the Qing dynasty, 2 volumes, it is an annotation works on the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) by Zhang Lu. Zhang Lu interprets the order, and his sons 張登(Zhāng Dēng) and 張倬(Zhāng Zhuō) participated in the revision, it was published in the Kangxi 6th year of the Qing dynasty (the year 1667 AD). The book focused on the incompleteness of the original works Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), or its incomplete parts of syndromes, treatments, and prescriptions, collected discussions from various schools, gave differentiation and analysis of syndromes and treatment, supplemented, the preface states: "To clear the differences of various schools and outlines them, to supplement the methods of Zhongjing, and to clarify their origins and sources." Zhang Lu intends to make "Zhongjing's method has no obstructions" and make it easy for readers to learn and use; however, the supplementary treatment prescriptions in this book have the defects of insufficient compatibility and impurity of the prescriptions.
《張氏醫通》(Zhang Shi Yi Tong, or Zhang's Treatise on General Medicine), written by Zhang Lu, 16 volumes, it was published in the Kangxi 34th year(the year 1695 AD). It is a comprehensive medical work focusing on miscellaneous diseases. It is a representative work that reflects Zhang Lu’s academic thoughts and is also the most influential book among Zhang’s medical works. According to the preface by the author, its compilation started from Jiashen (the year 1644 AD), the first manuscript was finished until Jihai (the year 1659 AD), and it was named as 《醫歸》(Yi Gui). Because part of the manuscripts was scattered and lost, after many years of supplementary revisions, Zhang referred to nearly 130 medical books of the past dynasties, and solicited opinions from more than 40 herbalists of his epoch, including 尤乘(You Cheng)、李用粹(Li Yongcui), etc., which lasted 50 years, the manuscript was changed 10 times, and the book was not easy to write. The style and types of syndromes in 《張氏醫通》(Zhang Shi Yi Tong, or Zhang's Treatise on General Medicine) are mainly based on Wang Kentang's Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng(the Standards of Diagnosis and Treatment), which is divided into internal, external, gynecological, pediatric, and five sense organs diseases, with verified cases attached. Volume 1 to Volume 7 is for internal medicine; volume 8 is for ENT; volume 9 is for external; volume 10 to volume 11 is for gynecology; volume 12 is for pediatric diseases; volume 13 to 16 is prescriptions. The main prescriptions have reference to herbalist Xue Ji's medical case records and Zhang Jiebin's 《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works), a synthesis of predecessors' medical theories, archaeological experience, and combined his own experience to polish and elaborate. Collect prescriptions for diseases, there are explanations for prescriptions, and the compatibility of medicines is explained. The book is rich in content and has been widely circulated after it was published. Scholars at that epoch praised it that "It is really an authentic medical book."
《診宗三昧》(Zhen Zong San Mei, or the concealed three in diagnosis), 1 volume, was written by Zhang Lu of the Qing dynasty and compiled by his son 張登(Zhāng Dēng). The book was firstly published in the Kangxi 28th year(the year 1689 AD). Zhang believes that people have diseases, all diseases are visible to the pulses, at the same time, he criticized some pulse studies at that time and stated that "I should use the three concealed water to cleanse the dust", so this book was compiled.
《本經逢原》(Ben Jing Feng Yuan), it was written by Zhang Lu, the book was finished in the Kangxi 34th year(the year 1695 AD). The book is divided into four volumes, describing more than 700 kinds of herbs. It is the only pharmacological work or herbal book among Zhang Lu's many works, focusing on clinical applications. This book is a masterpiece, with unique insights, making it clear after reading it, and enlightened further thinking. In view of the fact that the Sheng Nong Ben Cao Jing(Shen Nong's Materia Medica) recorded a few herbs, some of which are still lost or have little clinical utility, but there is no detailed record of the commonly used herbs, he then uses the Sheng Nong Ben Cao Jing(Shen Nong's Materia Medica) as the basis, use the classification method of Ben Cao Gang Mu(the Compendium of Materia Medica) as a reference, more than 700 commonly used herbs are listed into 32 categories, four volumes, and published. Although the name of this book is based on the Ben Jing(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, or Shen Nong's Materia Medica), it does not focus on textual identification. In fact, it focuses on the clinical practice of herbs. After repeated consideration, more practical herbs that are closely related to practice have been selected. This book was written by Zhang Lu when he was seventy-nine years old. It is one masterpiece of his over sixty years of experience in practicing herbal medicines. It not only contains his life's painstaking efforts in herbal research but also recorded many of his unique insights.
《傷寒兼證析義》(Shang Han Jian Zheng Xi Yi), 1 volume, it was compiled by 张倬(Zhāng Zhuō), a son of Zhang Lu, the book was published in the Kangxi 6th year (the year 1667 AD). It is said that “medicating is difficult, and Shang Han(the study of cold-induced disease and exogenous febrile disease) is the most difficult, especially for those with miscellaneous diseases.”. In addition, for those combined syndromes and overlapping syndromes of Shang Han, only mentioned accompanying symptoms of the six channels, but not mentioned miscellaneous diseases. Therefore, the book separates seventeen miscellaneous diseases including Zhong Feng(apoplexy) and consumptive disease, and sets up questions and answers to analyze them. In the end, there are attached theories about twelve meridians, eight extra meridians, five evolutive phases and six climatic factors(doctrine of five evolutive phases and six climatic factors), and the sources of prescriptions, which are quite new.
1.張璐Zhāng Lù:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.