朱肱Zhū Gōng:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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朱肱(Zhū Gōng).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 朱肱(Zhū Gōng)Alias: 翼中,無求子,大隱翁(Yì Zhōng,Wú Qiúzǐ,Dà Yǐnwēng)
Popular name: 朱奉議(Zhū Fèngyì)English Name: Zhu Gong, or Gong Zhu(Given/Family)
Hometown: Gui An of North Song(today's Huzhou)Dates: about 1050~1125 AD.
Main works: 《南陽活人書》(Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu, or the book of Nanyang for life saving).
Representative works: 《南陽活人書》(Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu, or the book of Nanyang for life saving).

Biography and legends:


 朱肱Zhū Gōng 朱肱(Zhū Gōng), alias 翼中(Yì Zhōng), self-title 無求子(Wú Qiúzǐ), changed self-title to 大隱翁(Dà Yǐnwēng) in his old age. He was called Zhu Fengyi because he was once assigned an official position Fengyi Lang. He was native to Wu Xing (today's Huzhou, Zhejiang), a scholar passed imperial examination and achieved Jinshi title in the Yuanyou 3rd year (year 1088 AD), but had no intention of being an official, so he retired to make wine and wrote a book. During the period, he had an in-depth study on Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), until the years the imperial court attach importance to medical science and seek those who are proficient in medical skills here and there, Zhu Gong was called as a learned scholar of medical science. He was later convicted of writing Su Dongpo's poems and was demoted to Dazhou, the next year returned and was assigned an official position Chao Fenglang.

 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) studied Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) for decades and was a famous expert of the Shang Han study at that time. Because Zhang Zhongjing ever lived in Nanyang, and herbalist Hua Tuo called the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) as a book to saving life, so he gave his book a name as 《南陽活人書》(Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu, or the book of Nanyang for life-saving), another name of the book was 《類證活人書》(Lei Zheng Huo Ren Shu, or the book of Shang Han syndromes for life-saving), its original name was 《無求子傷寒百問》(Wu Qiu Zi Shang Han Bai Wen, or A Hundred Questions for the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases by Wu Qiuzi), it was renamed when it was reengraved in the year 1118 AD. The whole book uses the method of comprehensive analysis, in easy-to-understand text, in the form of question-and-answers, to explain the similarities and differences in the treatment of cold-induced diseases, so that people can understand easier, and contribute a lot to the promotion of the practical application of Zhongjing's theory. During the period of emperor Song Xiaozong, 李先知(Lǐ Xiānzhī) summarized the essence and key points of the book according to its purpose, and wrote it in an intricate article, one syndrome with one song, and compiled the book named 《活人書括》(Huo Ren Shu Kuo,or A Summary of the book of Nanyang for life-saving), it was more popular and circulated, and the book of 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) had a big influence, as later works 《醫剩》(Yi Sheng, or the Remained Medical Works) recorded: "Those who are talking about the study of Shang Han, know that there is a book named Huo Ren Shu, but do not know that there is a book from Changsha(Zhang Zhongjing)."

 Ancient book 《齊東野語》(Qidong Yeyu, or the privately compiled story) by 周密(zhōu mì) recorded:"肱(Gōng), his grandfather name is 承逸(Chéngyì), was an official Kongmu at Huzhou. His father's name is 临(lín), alias 正夫(Zhēng fū), ever passed imperial examination and achieved Jinshi at Huangyou 1st year(year 1049 AD), was assigned as an official position titled Dian Zhongcheng. His elder brother's name is 服(Fú) , alias 行中(Xíng Zhōng), ever was assigned an official position Xiuzhuan of Zhijixiandian. His younger brother's name is 彤(Tóng), who is famous for his scholarship and morality in the native county.", and 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) passed imperial examination and achieved Jinshi at Yuanyou 3rd year(year 1088 AD). The Zhu's family can be called a generation high official positions family of Confucianism, as folks at the native county praised the Zhu's family that "three Jinshi scholars in one family".

 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) ever served different official positions after achieved Jinshi. In the Chongning 1st year (year 1102 AD), there was an eclipse, he was dismissed and returned to Dayin Fang of Hangzhou, make wine and write books, changed his self-title to 大隐翁(Dà Yǐnwēng, a big hermit). After the ancient medical works Nei Jing(the Yellow Emperor's Internal Canon) and Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), till the late period of the Han Dynasty herbalist Zhang Zhongjing compiled the book Shang Han Za Bing Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases), which began to formulate the norms and principles of the syndrome differentiation and treatment, but few people did systematic study on it. 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) concentrated on studying the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), asking questions and analyzing doubts, "Read from ancient works and verified from today's works, already twenty-one years till now", in the Daguan 2nd year (year 1108 AD), he finished the book 《無求子傷寒百問》(Wu Qiu Zi Shang Han Bai Wen, or A Hundred Questions for the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases by Wu Qiuzi), and published his first monograph. In the Zhenghe 1st year (year 1111 AD), the book was modified and supplemented, increased to 20 volumes, and renamed as 《南陽活人書》(Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu, or the book of Nanyang for life-saving). At that time, the imperial court promoted medicine, “seek those who has in-depth in Taoism, as masters for officials, and Gong was assigned as a learned scholar of medical science.", in the Zhenghe 4th year(year 1114 AD), he was assigned to be responsible for the government's medical decree.

 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) ever compiled other medical works too, in the Zhenghe 8th year (year 1118 AD), he took the paintings of “Left and Right Hand and Foot Jing Rongheyuan” by 丁德用(Dīng Déyòng), the paintings “Ren Du Er Mai, Shi Er Jing Zhu(Annotations on the Ren and Du meridians, and the Twelve Meridians) by 石藏用(Shí Cángyòng), and the paintings "The system of the heart, lungs, gallbladder, spleen, and stomach, the strongholds of the large and small intestines, and the bladder" by 楊介(Yáng Jiè), corrected the mistakes, supplemented with acupuncture methods, and compiled the book 《內外二景圖》(Nei Wai Er Jing Tu, or the Sceneries of the Internal and External), in 3 volumes. Except medical works, he ever wrote a book about wine, was known as 《北山酒經》(Bei Shan Jiu Jing, or the Wine Classics of the North Mountain), in 3 volumes.

Main books and academic thoughts:


 朱肱Zhū Gōng and his book Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) is proficient in theory of traditional Chinese medicine, and has rich clinical experience. Ancient works 《泊宅編》(Bo Zhai Bian) ever recorded a medical case when he was in the Dengzhou county, "the prefect 盛次仲(Sheng Cizhong) suffered and acute disease and called 肱(Gōng) to give him a treatment, he said: it is the syndrome of Xiaochaihu, please take three servings of recipes. At the night, Sheng said he felt fullness; Gong checked him again, and asked where is the medicine he ever took? Take and look at it, it is Xiao Chai Hu San(Minor Bupleurum Powder). Gong said: ancient preparations, said that the herb should be filed to the size of Madou(a kind of small bean), boiled and drink the clear juice, its name is the soup, so it enters the meridian to attack the disease quickly. Now it is the powder, stagnating on the diaphragm, so the stomach is full, and the disease is as untreated. So prepare according to the right method, decocted the recipe by himself, and let him take the second serving, the patient feel comfortable at that night."

 The book 《南陽活人書》(Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu, or the book of Nanyang for life-saving), written by 朱肱(Zhū Gōng) of the Song Dynasty, it was compiled and finished at the Daguan 1st year (year 1107 AD), a total of 22 volumes. Zhu Gong pointed out that for the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), "Those alive in this world who knows that should read this book are scare, and even want to read it, while could not know its meaning.". In order to make Zhongjing's book "easy to know so love to read", he wrote the book Nan Yang Huo Ren Shu(the book of Nanyang for life-saving) to give an interpretation of it. This book was written as 100 questions in the form of question and answer, it analyzes and comprehensively analyzes Zhongjing's syndrome differentiation and treatment methods, and is set as question and answer, to verify the book with its entries. So made an outline of Zhongjing's book which entries are scattered in chaos, make it properly and logically arranged, easy for readers to appreciate, and has a subtle elaboration of the etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prescriptions of the cold-induced diseases. Zhu believes that the study of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) should first clarify the essence of the six channels, and proposed that the six channels of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) are "three yin and three yang meridians of foot", so the circulation position and physiological characteristics of these six meridians are often used to explain the occurrence, transmission and change, and the sequelae of the six channels cold-induced diseases. In terms of differentiation and treatment of the cold-induced diseases, Zhu not only emphasizes differentiation of syndromes, pay attention to distinguishing the Yin, Yang, exterior, and interior of each syndrome; at the same time, he also attaches importance to differentiation and identification of diseases, and listed various types of exogenous affection diseases, Shang Han(cold-affection), Shang Feng(wind-affection), febrile disease, heatstroke(summer heat), warm disease(epidemic febrile disease), wen nue(warm malaria), wind-warm(wind-warm disease), pestilence, Zhong Shi(dampness affection, syndrome due to attack of pathogenic dampness), damp-warm(damp-warm disease), convulsive disease, warm toxin. In addition, this book not only elaborates the application of the original prescriptions of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), but also selects 126 formulas from other works Qianjin(the Invaluable Prescriptions), Wai Tai Mi Yao(the Medical Secrets of an Official), Shenghui Fang(the Holy Benevolent Prescription, or the Sacred Remedies) and Jin Kui Yu Han Jing(the classic of the Jade Letters from the Golden Chamber), as a makeup for the insufficiency of prescriptions from the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases).

 Later herbalist 徐靈胎(Xú Língtāi)'s commentary on the book stated that: "The Books of Song Dynasty, which can invent the Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), and makes readers could hold something and easy to know, who had made a great contribution to Zhongjing, the book Huo Ren Shu is the number one."

References:
  • 1.朱肱Zhū Gōng:introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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