張仲景(Zhāng Zhòngjǐng):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.
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Zhang Zhongjing, or Zhongjing Zhang(Given/Sur Name)
Nie Yang county,Nan Yang Jun
about 150~219 A.D.
《傷寒雜病論》(Shang Han Za Bing Lun, or Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases),《辨傷寒》十卷(Bian Shang Han.10 Vols),《評病藥方》壹卷(Ping Bing Yao Fang.1 vol),《療婦人方》二卷(Liao Fu Ren Fang.2 vols),《五藏論》壹卷(Wu Zang Lun.1 vol)
Shang Han Za Bing Lun(Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases)
“建安三神醫”之壹(One of Three Miracle Herbalists during the Jian An period)、醫聖(Medical Sage)
Biography and legends:
張機(Zhāng jī), is the name of herbalist 張仲景(Zhāng Zhòngjǐng), (150?~219? A.D.), 仲景(Zhòngjǐng) is his alias, one of the most influential herbalists in the TCM history of China, a legendary herbalist and master of herbs both in history of China and the history of World, a famous Taoist Priest. His hometown is ancient Nan Yang Jun, Nie Yang County of Han Dynasty(today's Zhang Zhai village, Dong Yang town, Deng County, Henan province.), at YanXi 4th year(year 161 A.D.), 張機(Zhāng jī) took 張伯祖(Zhāng Bózǔ) as his teacher, learned excellent diagnosis skills and good for treatment, master of classics and recipes, also a famous herbalist at Capital Chang'an. His books were used as the ancestor of later recipes, folks at Han period declared that 扁鵲(Biǎn Què), 倉公(Cāng Gōng) could not compare with him, 張機(Zhāng jī) was respected by later folks as "Medical Sage". At the year 1182 A.D., herbalist 劉完素(Liú Wánsù) recorded “Zhong Jing, inferior Sage" in his book; at the year 1526 A.D., in his book named History of Medicine, herbalist 李濂(Lǐ Lián) recorded Zhong Jing "was elected as inferior Sage", at the year 1589 A.D., herbalist 方有執(Fāng Yǒuzhí) recorded in his book(Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian) that “Zhong Jing was called Sage".
✧In the late years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, there were three eminent physicians, in history, they are briefly known as "Three Miracle Herbalists during the Jian An period", Jian An is the third reign title of the Emperor Xian Di of Han, about year 196~220 A.D., except herbalist Zhang Zhongjing, other two eminent physicians are herbalist 華佗(Huà Tuó) and herbalist 董奉(Dǒng Fèng).
✧The history book Hou Han Shu(the Book of the Later Han, or History of the Later Han) gave no records of him, his achievements were firstly recorded in the ancient book Ming Yi Lu(the records about famous herbalists) which was written by 甘伯宗(Gān Bózōng) of the Tang Dynasty, it recorded that: “Zhang Zhongjing, is native to Nan Yang, name Ji, Zhong Jing is an alias. He started to learn crafts with native herbalist Zhang Bozu, folks at that time told his ideas and skills are refined and exceeded his master, his books are brief essential, and profound, his method is simple but comes in details, could not be understood by those who know a little or shallow."
Main books and academic thoughts:
✦According to autobiographic note of herbalist Zhang Zhongjing, those classics like Su Wen(the Plain Questions), Jiu Juan(the Spiritual Pivot), Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), Yin Yang Da Lun, Tai Lu Yao Lu and others already widespread. Evidence from Jia Yi Jing·Xu(the Systematized Canon of Acupuncture and Moxibustion·Preface) showed that professional classic about recipes and treatment named Tang Ye Jing already published. The basic classics of TCM include those basic theories, materia medica, prescriptions of Chinese materia medica, and science of acupuncture and moxibustion were already widespread, the basic theory of medicine already came into shape and became rich and complete day by day.
✧The book Shang Han Za Bing Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases) by Zhang Zhongjing was the first classic medical books which represented and combined "Theory, Method, Recipes, Medine" completely, in this book herbalist Zhang Zhongjing firstly explained the pathological reasons of epidemic disease and miscellaneous diseases, pathological mechanism, and treatment methods, founded a firm theoretical basis for the clinical medicine development of later generations. The combinative theory system of Shang Han Za Bing Lun has a very high scientific level and practical value, it offers very effective treatment method for both exogenous febrile disease and miscellaneous disease, gave long period clinical practice guide for herbalists ever since it published, had a big and very important influence on the development of TCM academics.
✦In the Jin Dynasty, imperial physician 王叔和(Wáng Shūhé) collected the survival volumes of Shang Han Za Bing Lun, tried to edit and sort out it. When editing this book, Wang Shuhe found he could not edit them into 16 volumes, instead, only 10 volumes finished, its content is mainly about the cold-induced disease and its syndrome differentiation and treatment theory, thus he named this edition as Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), in his personal famous classic Mai Jing(the Pulse Classic), Wang Shuhe(Wáng Shūhé) also collected many contents of Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases).
1.張仲景(Zhāng Zhòngjǐng):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.