Introduction of Black Haw:Stagbush or Blackhaw viburnum.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Black Haw, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Viburnum prunifolium L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Black Haw, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Black Haw(Stagbush).

 English Name: Black Haw.
 Latin Name: Viburnum prunifolium Linn.
 Common Names: Stagbush, Blackhaw viburnum, American Sloe, Sweet Haw, European Cranberry, Cramp Bark, Guelder Rose, Snowball Tree, King's Crown, High Cranberry, Red Elder, Rose Elder, Water Elder, Mary Rose, Whitsun Rose, Dog Rowan Tree, Whitsun Bosses, Silver Bells, Wild Guelder Rose.
 Property and flavor: cold nature, tastes bitter.

 Brief introduction: Black haw is a native herb of North America, it was used by Native American women to prevent miscarriage, relieve menstrual pain and other syndromes. The bark and the root are used medicinally. The herb is a natural source of salicin and tannins.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Black Haw as the bark, root, and stems of the species (1). Viburnum prunifolium L. It is a plant species of the Viburnum genus, the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family). The reddish-brown bark of its root and stems is used medicinally in North America, and the dried fruit and essential oil from the ripe fruit are used medicinally in Europe. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Viburnum prunifolium L.

 Botanical description: Viburnum prunifolium is a plant of the Viburnum genus and the Caprifoliaceae family, a deciduous shrub or small tree, it grows up to 2~9 meters tall, normally up to 5 meters tall, its trunk is shortly crooked, the stout spreading branches are green and grooved, its bark is gray-brown, the leaves are opposite, petiolate, 3 to 5 lobed, roughly dentate, green on both surfaces and softly pubescent beneath. The flowers are white and in richly blossomed, flat, apical cymes, the calyx has a small margin and is 5-tipped, and the corolla of the fertile florets is campanulate and has 5 petals. It has 5 stamens, a semi-inferior ovary, and 3 sessile stigmas. The black haw fruit is a shiny, black, juicy berry. In the northern area, it grows as a shrub, but in the southern area, it grows into a small tree. The bark is reddish-brown, very rough on old stems.

 Ecological environment: Viburnum prunifolium is indigenous to the eastern and central USA (the United States of America). Black haw prefers sunny woodland with well-drained soil and adequate water.

 Growth characteristics: Viburnum prunifolium is easy to grow on average, dry to medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade, and the tree tolerates drought. Prune immediately after flowering, since flower buds form in summer for the following year.

 Characters of herbs: Black Haw bark is the bark of the trunk and branches of Viburnum prunifolium.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antispasmodic actions on the uterine muscle; ②.Natural source of salicin and pain reliever; ③.Natural source of astringent tannins; etc.

 The herb black haw has a spasmolytic and undefined effect on the uterus. Related studies proposed the root bark could relax the uterus and ease the cramping that causes menstrual pains for its component scopoletin has antispasmodic actions on the uterine muscle; The pain-relieving effect of black haw bark is attributed to its component salicin, salicin is a natural source for the synthesis of the famous pain reliever aspirin, so its efficacy on pain-relieving is similar to white willow bark which also contains salicin. Besides, black haw bark contains astringent tannins, tannins could reduce intestinal inflammation, which explained its traditional application for the treatment of diarrhea, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: In Europe, the herb black haw is used for complaints of amenorrhea. Black Haw was used by Native American women to prevent miscarriage, relieve menstrual pain, stop uterine bleeding, encourage recovery from childbirth, and relieve other menopausal discomforts. It was still used as a uterine tonic by American women in the 19th century, today's herbalists recommend black haw for female reproductive system problems and also for diarrhea, asthma, and nervousness. As it contains salicin, so it is also recommended for aches and pains, fever, and headache.

 Administration of Black Haw (Stagbush): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Black Haw (Stagbush)
Herbal classic books: In Europe, the herb is recommended 2.5 to 5 grams of the herb as an infusion or decoction, 4 to 8 ml of saps, and 5 to 10 ml of the tincture. In North America, a decoction is advised to prepare with 2 teaspoons of dried bark per cup of water. The tincture is recommended up to 2 teaspoons three times daily.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: There are no hazards or side effects known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages. No reports of significant adverse reactions for centuries of use. Avoidance should be attention, pregnant women should not take the herb because of its potential to relax the uterus, black haw should also be avoided during pregnancy, as aspirin should not be taken during pregnancy because it has been implicated in birth defects, also black haw should not be given to children under 16 age if they have flu symptoms or chickenpox because the rare risk is a potentially fatal condition known as Reye's syndrome. Do not take black haw if you are allergic to aspirin. Black haw berries may cause nausea in some individuals.




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