Introduction of Boldo:Boldea fragrans or Boldea boldus.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Boldo, its English name, Latin name, common names, synonyms, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Peumus boldus Mol., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Boldo, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Boldo(Boldea).

 English Name: Boldo.
 Latin Name: Peumus boldus Mol.
 Common Names: Boldea, boldoa, boldus, boldu.
 Synonyms: Boldu boldus, Boldea fragrans, Boldea boldus, Boldu chilanum.
 Property and flavor: hot in nature, tastes pungently spicy.

 Brief introduction: Boldo is the dried leaves of a native Chilean evergreen shrub, Peumus boldus, the leaves are pungently spicy, it is naturalized in Europe and North America too.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Boldo as the leaves of the species (1). Peumus boldus Mol. It is a plant species of the Peumus genus, the Monimiaceae family (the Monimiaceae Juss family). The dried leaves are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Peumus boldus Mol.


 Botanical description: Peumus boldus is an evergreen shrub or small tree, it grows up to 5~6 meters in height. The leaves are sessile, opposite, oval or elliptical, rounded at the end, about 5 cm long with an entire and slightly revolute edge, leaves are rather thick and coriaceous with a protruding midrib and a row of small glands on the upper surface, both surfaces are slightly pubescent.

 The inflorescences are racemes of whitish or pinkish campanulate flowers. The berries are small, yellowish-green, and edible.

 Ecological environment: Peumus boldus is native to Chile, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru, it grows in dry and mountainous places in South America. It grows in the Andes, naturalized in the mountainous Mediterranean regions, and also cultivated in North Africa and Italy, it also grows on the western coast of USA (the United States of America).

 Growth characteristics: Peumus boldus does not tolerate frost, it grows wild in mountainous and dry zones of Chile, is shallow, and often grows in rocky soils, temperate climates, and areas at altitudes below 1,000 meters.

 Characters of herbs: Boldo leaf consists of the dried leaves of Peumus boldus, it has a bitter, aromatic odor and a camphoraceous, lemony taste, pungently spicy.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antispasmodic; ②.choleretic; ③.increase gastric secretions; ④.antioxidants; etc.

 Related studies proposed the herb boldo can increase the secretion of gastric juice and help relieve muscle spasms, and one of the herb's alkaloids may be responsible for its actions such as stimulating the liver to secrete more bile and the kidneys to boost urine output, increased urination has been observed in humans following ingestion of boldo. The herb boldo and its components such as boldine have an antioxidant effect, it can help to scavenge toxic by-products that may contribute to cancer cell formation, so it might help to treat certain cancers, atherosclerosis, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and other disorders related to oxidation. Some studies proposed the free-radical scavenging effect of boldo leaves is mainly due to catechin and flavonoids, and that the antioxidant effect is mainly related to the catechin content.

 Medicinal efficacy: The herb Boldo is used traditionally in South American regions for treating digestive, liver, and biliary disorders. In Europe, the herb is approved in German for dyspeptic complaints, they also advised it for dyspepsia or indigestion, mild, cramp-like stomach, and intestinal upset. It is also advised for cramp-like stomach upset, indigestion, rheumatism, intestinal worms, gout, and numerous other maladies.

 Administration of Boldo (Boldea): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Boldo (Boldea)
Herbal classic books: Because of the scaridol content, essential oil and distillates of Boldo leaf should not be used. Comminuted herb for infusions and other, virtually ascarido-free preparations for internal application. Preparation is advised to pour 150 ml of hot water over 1~2 grams of the herb, and steep for 10~15 minutes. The average daily dosage is 4.5 grams, or 1 cup of tea two to three times daily.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Boldo should be used with care. The leaves contain a toxic alkaloid, Boldo volatile oil is one of the most toxic oils. Excessive doses have caused irritation of the kidneys and genitourinary tract. A massive overdose can cause paralysis, and should not use by patients with kidney disease. The volatile oil should not be used, because it contains up to 40% of the toxin ascaridole. Ascaridole accounts for boldo's folk use for fighting worms. Although communities in South America have been using the herb for some time, they are also known to handle the herb with extreme caution. Because of ascaridole, German health authorities warn against using distillates or the essential oil of boldo.
 Boldo is contraindicated in patients with bile duct obstruction and those with severe liver disease, and should not be used.

 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Boldo:Boldea fragrans or Boldea boldus.

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