✵The article gives records of the herb Pansy, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Viola tricolor., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Pansy, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Pansy.
Latin Name: Viola tricolor Linn., Viola tricolor hortensis(cultivated variety),L.
Common Names: Field pansy, heartsease, Johnny-jump-up,ladies'-delight, Biddy's Eyes, Cat's Face, European Wild Pansy, Jack-Behind-the-Garden-Gate, Look-Up-and-Kiss-Me, Love-and-Idle, Pansy Viscum, Wild Pansy.
Property and flavor: cold in nature, tastes bitter, the plant is odorless and the taste slimy-sweetish.
Brief introduction: Pansy is easily recognized by its handsome, delicate flowers, which range in color from deep blue and bright yellow to pale violet and white. These flowers bloom from May to September and can be seen growing wild across temperate regions of North America and their native Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The plant is also widely cultivated. The above ground parts, including the flowers and the lobed oval leaves, are used medicinally.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Pansy as the dried above-ground parts of the species (1). Viola tricolor. It is a plant species of the Viola genus, the Violaceae family (violet family). The dried above-ground parts are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
Botanical description: Viola tricolor is a biennial, or perennial herb, it grows up to 10~40 cm tall. Above-ground stems are thick, upright or slightly inclined, ribbed, single or branched. The basal leaf blade is long ovate or lanceolate, with long petioles; the cauline leaf blade is ovate, oblong-round or oblong-lanceolate, the apex is rounded or obtuse, the base is rounded, a beak with sparsely crenate or obtuse serrate; upper petioles are longer, lower petioles are shorter; stipules are large, leaf-like, and pinnately lobed.
Flowers are large, about 3.5~6 cm in diameter, with 3~10 flowers on each stem, usually, each flower is purple, white, and yellow; pedicels are slightly thicker, solitary leaf grows in axils; bracteoles are opposite, tiny, oviate triangular-shaped, sepals are oblong-lanceolate, basal appendages are developed; upper petals are violet-colored, lateral and lower petals are tricolor; slender, 5~8 mm long, glabrous. The flowering period is from April to July, and the fruiting period is from May to August.
Ecological environment: Viola tricolor is native to temperate Europe and Asia continent, from the Mediterranean to Ireland. It is cultivated in Holland and France, the herb is cultivated predominantly in Central Europe, it is also introduced to many other countries. Pansy is a native flower of Iceland and is designated as the national flower. Pansy is the national flower of Poland, too.
Growth characteristics: Viola tricolor is relatively cold-resistant, likes coolness and sunshine, and grows well under the conditions of day temperature of 15~25 °C (Celsius, or 59~77 degrees Fahrenheit) and night temperature of 3~5 °C (Celsius, or 37.4~41 degrees Fahrenheit). Avoid high temperature and waterlog, and resist cold and frost, if the daytime temperature is continuously above 30 °C (Celsius, or 86 degrees Fahrenheit), the flower buds will disappear, or no petals will be formed; when the daytime temperature continues to be 25 °C (Celsius, or 77 degrees Fahrenheit), only flowers will bloom but not fruit, even if they are fruitful, the seeds will not develop well. The root system can withstand a low temperature of -15 °C (Celsius, or 5 degrees Fahrenheit), but the leaves turn yellow when the freezing temperature is lower than -5 °C (Celsius, or 23 degrees Fahrenheit). The length of sunshine has a greater impact on flowering than the intensity of light, and the sunshine is poor, and the flowering is not good. It should be planted in fertile and well-drained sandy loam soil, fertile, well-drained, neutral loam, or clay loam rich in organic matter, pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) 5.4~7.4. It is a perennial plant and is often cultivated as a biennial.
Ornamental value: Pansy is often planted on flower beds in courtyard layouts and can be used as felt flower beds and flower bush flower beds. It is also suitable for arranging flower borders and lawn edges; different varieties and other flowers can be planted together to form a unique early spring landscape; in addition, it can also be potted or arranged on balconies, windowsills, steps, or embellished rooms, studies, and living rooms. It is quite innovative and elegant.
As a well-known early spring flower, the pansy has many varieties, bright colors, and a long flowering period. Therefore, it is very popular in developed countries such as Europe and USA (the United States of America). Since the introduction of wild species into garden cultivation in 1629 A.D., varieties have been improved since the 19th century, and round and large-flowered varieties have been selected. In the early 20th century, breeders in Germany selected some cold-resistant varieties. In the mid-20th century, the Swedes bred the Swiss Giant series and the Americans selected the Oregon series, with a flower diameter of 10 cm. Since the 1970s, USA, United Kingdom, France, Germany and other countries have made rapid progress in the breeding of pansies, the flower diameter has reached 12 cm, and the miniature pansy with a flower diameter of only 3 cm has also been bred, and black pansy has been bred. In addition to cold-resistant varieties, there are also heat- and disease-resistant pansies. There is a saying that "the flower posture of England, the flower diameter of USA, the color of Germany, and the character of France". Pansy is particularly admired in Europe, and Italians regard pansy as a thing of "longing" and "missing", especially for girls. Pansy is cultivated in parks across China for viewing.
Industrial value: The flowers are dark purple, with a fragrant odor, and the essence can be extracted.
Characters of herbs: Viola herb is the dried, above-ground parts of Viola tricolor, mainly of the subspecies vulgaris and subspecies arvensis, harvested at the flowering season. The flowering above-ground parts are harvested in the summer months and carefully dried on a well-ventilated floor or at 45 to 50 °C (Celsius, or 113~122 degrees Fahrenheit). Two to three harvests per year are possible.
Pharmacological actions: ①.natural source of salicylic acid; ②.mucilage and softening and soothing actions; ③.saponin and antipsoriatic effect.
Pansy contains some content of salicylic acid, saponins and mucilage. The salicylic acid concentration in pansy is about 0.3 percent, at higher concentrations 1.8 to 3 percent it is used to treat seborrhea, dandruff, acne, and other skin disorders, salicylic acid promotes skin healing by generating a more rapid turnover of new skin cells. The mucilage content of pansy is used for soothing the respiratory tract. The herb has an antipsoriatic effect, and studies attribute it to the saponin content.
Medicinal efficacy: Traditionally pansy was used in folk medicine as an expectorant to clear upper respiratory tract congestion, bronchitis, and whooping cough, used to treat feverish chills and increase urination in the form of a diuretic, and gargle was used for throat inflammation. It is recommended by contemporary herbalists in topical form for skin disorders such as eczema, mild seborrhea, acne, itching, and impetigo. It is used as an internal blood purifier that can purportedly abolish toxins responsible for such skin disorders.
In Europe, the herb is approved for inflammation of the skin. In folk medicine, its external use includes mild seborrheic skin diseases, cradle cap in children, and various skin disorders, including wet and dry exanthema, eczema, Crusta lactea, acne, impetigo, and Pruritus vulvae. It is also used internally as a mild laxative for constipation and as an auxiliary agent to promote metabolism. In homeopathy, the herb is used for eczema and inflammation of the urinary tract.
The colorful blossoms are sometimes added as decorations to cakes, candies, and other foods.
Administration of Pansy (Viola tricolor):
Administration Guide of Pansy (Viola tricolor)
Dosage: An infusion is prepared using 1 to 2 teaspoons of flowers per cup of water and is taken internally or used in a wet dressing. To prepare a tea, pour 1 cup of scalding water over 1 dessertspoonful of herb. An infusion for internal use is prepared using 5 to 10 grams per 1 liter of water. A decoction for internal use is prepared by adding 1.5-gram herb to 1 cup of water. The herb is also used as a bath additive. A cup of tea is taken 3 times daily after meals. The dose for the infusion is 1 dessertspoonful, 3 times daily. The dose for the powdered herb is half a teaspoonful in hot sugar water, 3 times daily. Pansy is stored away from light sources, and from moisture in well-sealed containers.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Topical formulations cause no known side effects and no known interactions with other remedies. However, with the presence of salicylic acid, you should watch for any extra irritation, dryness, peeling, or other reactions on the skin after using it externally, and stop using it if any occur. Do not leave it on large parts of the body or apply it to open wounds.
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1.Introduction of Pansy:Field pansy or Wild Pansy.