Introduction of Selenium:its functions, symptoms of deficiency, and food sources.
✵The article gives records of the essential trace element Selenium, its English name, common name, property and flavor, its natural sources, with a detailed introduction to its functions, symptoms of selenium deficiency, food source, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Selenium.
Common Names: hydrogen selenide, selenide.
Brief introduction: Selenium is an essential trace element present in all body tissues. Selenium is a necessary or essential trace element for the human body to function properly, it is used by the body as a cofactor in inhibiting the oxidation of lipids, and as an antioxidant. Selenium deficiency is usually in individuals with alcoholic cirrhosis, symptoms are muscle pain, abnormal nail beds, and cardiomyopathy.
Natural source: The human body cannot synthesize selenium by itself, and selenium in food is the main source. According to the measurement data of selenium content in food by scientists, we can find the following: the order is seafood, fish, eggs, meat, vegetables, and fruits. Selenium is mainly found in natural foods, seafood, and plant seeds, especially sesame seeds contain a lot of selenium. Selenium is also found in most antioxidant nutritional supplements. Most fruits and vegetables are low in selenium, with the highest being garlic, which contains 14 µg of selenium per 100g.
The functions of selenium: Selenium is an essential vector mineral nutrient for the human body and cannot be synthesized in the human body. The total content of selenium in the human body is 6~20 mg. Selenium is found in various tissues, and body fluids, with the highest concentration in the kidney, which is very important for improving immunity and preventing cancer. Selenium in men is mostly concentrated in the testes, prostate, and vas deferens, and will be excreted together with semen.
Selenium is mainly absorbed in the small intestine, and the human body absorbs 60% to 80% of selenium in food. Most of the selenium absorbed into the body through the intestinal tract is metabolized and excreted in the urine. Urine selenium is a good indicator for judging the gain and loss of selenium in the human body. Since there is no organ for long-term storage of selenium in the human body, the selenium needed by the body should continuously obtain sufficient selenium from the diet. The balance of selenium concentration has an important protective effect and promotion effect on the physiological functions of many organs and tissues.
When selenium is deficient, it will easily lead to the decline of human immunity. More than 40 diseases that threaten human health and life are related to human selenium deficiency, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cataract, pancreatic disease, diabetes, and symptoms of reproductive system diseases.
Some people think that they are deficient in selenium, so they blindly supplement selenium. Taking high-selenium foods as nutritional products for a long time means that the human body is in a high-selenium state. In fact, it is not advisable to blindly supplement selenium. The human body is in a state of high selenium for a long time, which manifests as sluggish skin pain, numbness in the limbs, dizziness, loss of appetite, hair loss, thickened nails, rash, itching, pale complexion, gastrointestinal Dysfunction, indigestion, and other symptoms.
Generally speaking, for the total daily requirement of each person, the daily supplement of selenium of 25 micrograms or more for Chinese adults has a health effect; the daily supplement of selenium for adults with selenium deficiency is 50 micrograms or 75 micrograms, selenium-enriched rice, selenium-enriched wheat, seafood, mushrooms, eggs, garlic, ginkgo, and other selenium-containing elements are relatively high, selenium-deficient people can appropriately increase the amount of food in this area, and normal people only need to maintain a balanced diet of selenium.
There are more than 40 countries and regions in the world that are deficient in selenium. Nutrition experts have concluded through repeated experiments that the standard value of blood selenium in the human body is 0.10 mg/kg, below which selenium deficiency will occur. 0.10 mg/kg is the minimum set by the United Nations Health Organization(WHO).
Symptoms of selenium deficiency: ①.Selenium has anti-cancer and antioxidant effects: Selenium deficiency in the human body is prone to liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, etc.
②. Selenium can enhance human immunity: Selenium deficiency reduces the body's immunity.
④. Selenium has the effect of antagonizing harmful heavy metals: Selenium deficiency can easily lead to lead, arsenic, cadmium, and other heavy metal poisoning symptoms.
⑤. Selenium can regulate the absorption and utilization of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin K. Selenium deficiency can cause myopia, cataracts, retinopathy, fundus diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and other diseases.
⑥. Selenium has the function of regulating protein synthesis: Selenium deficiency can cause protein-energy-deficiency malnutrition, chromosomal damage, etc.
⑦. Selenium can enhance reproductive function: Selenium deficiency can lead to blocked ejaculation, low sperm motility, deformity, reduced conception rate, increased incidence of metritis, and other symptoms.
⑧. Selenium is an important component of muscle function: Selenium deficiency will cause skeletal muscle atrophy and grayish-white stripes, myocardial damage, changes in myocardial cell density, increase in lipids, and calcium deposition, leading to disease.
Food sources of selenium: Foods with more selenium and their selenium content are as follows (mg/100g):
Beans: fried white pumpkin seeds 27.03, safflower beans 19.05, flower peas 9.72, soybeans 6.16, red kidney beans 4.61, soybeans 4.29, mung beans 4.28, peanut kernels 3.94, tofu 1.55~2.62.
Eggs: Quail eggs 25.48, white eggs 16.55, red eggs 14.98.
Aquatic products: small shrimp 74.43, sea shrimp 56.41, dace 48.10, hairtail 36.57, river shrimp 29.65, conger eel 25.85.
Fruits and vegetables: konjac powder 350.15, alfalfa 8.53, beetroot moss 8.43, cabbage moss 6.68, fresh longa bean 5.60, garlic 5.54, carrot 2.80, fungus 2.60, green bean 2.48, etc., which are relatively less rich in selenium than fruits and vegetables.
The foods above can supplement the human body with selenium. Individuals who need selenium supplementation can take more selenium to ensure an adequate supply of selenium and maintain their health. It should be pointed out that the high content of selenium in food does not mean that individuals could absorb it at a high level.
Pharmacological actions: ①.relieve disorders and a good source of selenium; ②.antioxidant; ③.affect mood; ④.affect heart disease, etc.
Selenium help prevents or treats many disorders, good sources of selenium include meat, fish, various cereal grains, mushrooms, poultry, egg yolks, wheat germ, garlic, cucumbers, asparagus, and Brazil nuts.
Selenium has antioxidant activity, antioxidant control the formation of dangerous substances in the body called free radicals, free radicals damage cells through oxidation, some of which may contribute to the cancer-cell formation, and a diet with selenium helps prevent animals from various cancers. And the body uses selenium from dietary sources better than it can from dietary supplements.
Low dietary selenium levels may adversely affect mood. Selenium deficiency is found in a population with a potentially deadly heart disorder called Keshan disease, it also leads to high rates of a joint disorder called Kaschin-Beck disease in children.
Medicinal efficacy: Selenium is a necessary or essential trace element for the human body to function properly, it is used by the body as a cofactor in inhibiting the oxidation of lipids, and as an antioxidant. Selenium deficiency is usually in individuals with alcoholic cirrhosis, symptoms are muscle pain, abnormal nail beds, and cardiomyopathy. Selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of skin cancer and help to prevent cancers of the breast, lung, ovaries, large intestines, rectum, and prostate, improve mood, clear up skin conditions such as acne, forestall aging, boost the immune system, help prevent and counter immune-system-deficiency disorders such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Selenium is added to shampoos for dandruff control.
Administration of Selenium (selenide):
Administration Guide of Selenium (selenide)
Herbal classic books:
Dosage: The recommended daily allowance for selenium is 70 mg for adult men and 50~55 mg for adult women. A commonly reported daily dosage is 50~100 mg. Selenium is often taken in combination with vitamin E.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: A daily intake of between 50 mg~200 mg of selenium is safe. But selenium is toxic if taken in more than the recommended concentrations, causing nausea and vomiting, skin lesions, fatigue, hair and nail loss, tooth problems, and central nervous system effects in many cases. Serious conditions such as muscular weakness, respiratory failure, infertility, growth retardation, swallowing difficulties, focal hepatic necrosis, and bronchopneumonia may signal selenium toxicity.
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1.Introduction of Selenium:its functions, symptoms of deficiency, and food sources.