Introduction of Turpentine Oil:purified turpentine or spirits of turpentine.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Turpentine Oil, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Pinus palustris Mill., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Turpentine Oil, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Turpentine Oil(spirits of turpentine).

Pinus palustris Mill:long leaf pine leaves English Name: Turpentine Oil.
 Latin Name: Pinus palustris Mill., Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinus elliotti Engelm, and various other Pinus species and varieties.
 Common Names: Gum turpentine, purified turpentine, rectified turpentine, rosin, spirits of turpentine, turpentine.
 Property and flavor: specific fragrant or stimulant.

 Brief introduction: Turpentine is an oleoresin obtained from various pine tree species, particularly the longleaf pine(Pinus palustris Mill), it is a natural product containing chiefly resin and essential oils, only a high-quality form of turpentine is appropriate for medicinal use. A medicinal-quality resin called rosin is also extracted from the oleoresin.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Turpentine Oil as the resin and essential oil of the species (1).Pinus palustris Mill. It is a plant species of the Pinus Linn genus, the Pinaceae family (pine family). The resin and essential oil are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Pinus palustris Mill.

 Pinus palustris Mill:growing tree Botanical description: Pinus palustris Mill is a tree, it is commonly known as longleaf pine, the tree grows up to 45 meters in origin, diameter at breast height grows to about 1.2 meters; branches spread upward or nearly flat, and the crown is broadly conical or nearly umbrella-shaped; bark is dark gray-brown, cracked into scaly thin pieces and falling off; branches grow a round once a year, sparse growth in several rounds; branchlets are stout, orange-brown; winter buds are thick, silvery-white, narrowly oblong or cylindrical, the apex is pointed, without resin; bud scales are long lanceolate. Needles grow in a bundle of 3 needles, 20~45 cm long, about 2 mm in diameter, rigid and pointed at the apex; triangular in cross-section, type II, subcutaneous cells, 3~7 resin passages, many grow endogenously; leaf sheath is about 2.5 cm long.

 Pinus palustris Mill:long leaf pine cones The cones are narrow-ovate-cylindrical, resinous, green before maturity, dark brown when mature, 15~25 cm long; the scale shields of the seed scales are hypertrophic, prominently raised, with obvious transverse ridges, and the scale hilum is short and wide, with hard and sharp point spines; seeds are large, about 1.2 cm long, with long wings, and the seed wings are about 3.7 cm long. Seedlings in the first few years are short, grass-like stems.

 Ecological environment: Pinus palustris Mill is native to the southeastern coast and southern subtropical regions of USA (the United States of America), longleaf pine has been introduced and cultivated in other countries of the world.

 Pinus palustris Mill:bark Growth characteristics: Pinus palustris Mill likes a hot and humid oceanic climate. Longleaf pine is a warm and dry positive tree species, it can adapt to warm and dry climates. It is suitable for planting in high-altitude areas. It is best to choose a gentle slope with deep, moist, and fertile soil, good drainage, and neutrality. Likewise, it does not grow well on arid steep slopes, and cannot be afforestation in places with poor drainage or intermittent water accumulation.

 Pinus palustris Mill:growing tree Pharmacological actions: ①.relieve pain; ②.expectorant effect; ③.counterirritant and rubefacient; ④.antimicrobial, etc.

 Turpentine is used as a topical treatment for pain, and as a remedy for cough and congestion.

 Turpentine is a counterirritant and rubefacient, it causes surface irritation and redness to increase circulation to the area and produce associated sensations of warmth and distraction from deeper pain, in USA it is used for minor pains, aches, and muscle sores, for pain caused by rheumatic and neuralgic ailments, turpentine baths is used in some area for disseminated sclerosis, and painful collagen-vascular disease involving extensive inflammation and stiffening.

 Turpentine oil applied to severe wounds infested with fly larvae reportedly helps remove the dead skin tissue, it may also help fight certain bacteria.

 Medicinal efficacy: Traditionally turpentine was used for the synthesis of various chemicals including camphor and menthol, as a food flavor in minute amounts, as an insect repellent, a resin for chewing gum and adhesives. It has long been used in ointments and other topical forms as a counterirritant for alleviating various pains and aches such as pulled muscles, nerve pain, and stiff joints, used in cough and cold remedies as a stimulating expectorant to help expel phlegm, as a carminative for excess gas, diuretic, colic remedy, and diarrhea treatment, turpentine baths was advised for rheumatism.

 Administration of Turpentine Oil (spirits of turpentine): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Turpentine Oil (spirits of turpentine)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: For adults and children over the age of two, turpentine is applied externally in concentrations of 6~50 percent up to three or four times per day. For internal preparations, use commercial products only and follow dosage instructions carefully. Turpentine products should be stored properly, because of their volatile nature, read package instructions carefully.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Commercial turpentine in paint solvents and other substances should never be used for medicinal purposes. Turpentine oil must be handled carefully to avoid toxic reactions and even fatal poisonings. Doses of 15 ml are fatal to children, and doses of 140 ml are fatal to adults. Poisoning may induce redness, rash, hives, headache, coughing, vomiting, bloody urine, insomnia, albuminuria or protein in the urine, and coma. If turpentine oil is applied to the affected skin area more than the recommended three or four times a day, negative effects including local burning, irritation, gastrointestinal upset, and breathing problems may develop in certain individuals, or even hives, vomiting, and blistering eruptions. Pregnant women should not use turpentine oil in any form. Turpentine applied to the skin of various animals over long periods has caused benign skin tumors to develop.

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