Introduction of Wormwood:Absinthe or Bitter Artemesia of Central Asia.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Wormwood, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Artemesia absinthium L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Wormwood, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Wormwood(Bitter Artemesia of Central Asia).

shrubs of Wormwood with small green leaves grow in field English Name: Wormwood.
 Latin Name: Artemesia absinthium L.
 Common Names: Absinthe, absinthites, absinthium, armoise, artemesia, wermut, Green Ginger.
 Property and flavor: cold in nature, tastes bitter.

 Brief introduction:  The silky, silvery leaves and greenish-yellow flowering tops of this strongly aromatic perennial are used medicinally once dried. It is native to Europe and grows plentifully in certain parts of North America, Asia, and Africa. The plant is also known as bitter Artemesia of Central Asia.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Wormwood as the leaves and flowering tops of the species (1).Artemesia absinthium L. It is a plant species of the Leontopodium genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, daisy family). The leaves and flowering tops are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Artemesia absinthium L.

 shrubs of Artemesia absinthium grow in field Botanical description: Artemesia absinthium is a perennial herb, it grows up to 60~150 cm tall. The main root is single, vertical, slightly lignified, and up to 3 cm in diameter. Rhizomes are slightly stubby, and vertical. Stems are single or 2~3, upright, densely gray-white pubescent, the upper part is branched obliquely. The lower leaves of the stem are two to three pinnatifid, long ovate or ovate, 8~12 cm long, 7~9 cm wide, petiole length is 6~12 cm, the middle leaves are long ovate or ovate, two pinnatifid, 6~9 cm long, 3~7 cm wide; petiole is 2~6 cm long; upper leaves are pinnatifid or 5-lobed, 4~6 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, subsessile; bract leaves are 3-parted or not split.

 shrub of Artemesia absinthium with dark green leaves grow in grass The capitulum is spherical or subsphaeroidal (torulose), pendulous, arranged in spike-like racemes on stem ends or branches; involucral bracts are in 3-4 layers, middle and outer involucral bracts are with white pubescence, the inner layer is membranous, almost glabrous; inflorescence torso with white hairs; female flowers 1-layer, 15~25, the corolla is narrowly conical, corolla mast with 2-lobed teeth, style is linear, protruding from corolla, the apex is bifurcated and long hermaphroditic flowers 4~6 layers, 30~90 flowers, the corolla is tubular, anthers are lanceolate, style and corolla are as long, apex is bifurcated, stigma with cilia. Achenes are oblong, with a slightly asymmetrical coronal margin at the apex. Its flowering and fruiting period is from August to November.

 small shrubs of Artemesia absinthium with small green leaves grow in field Ecological environment: Artemesia absinthium grows in alpine and subalpine wastelands, meadows, gravel slopes, and outer edges of coniferous forests, 2,500~2,900 meters above sea level. Widely distributed in the north temperate zone. The plant is native to Europe, mainly distributed in European countries, eastern, central, or western regions of Asia, northern and northwestern Africa, Canada, and the eastern USA (the United States of America).

 Growth characteristics: Artemesia absinthium prefers adequate sunshine and good ventilation, and well-drained sandy loam is preferred, which is conducive to growth.

 shrubs of Artemesia absinthium grow in field Characters of herbs: Wormwood is the fresh or dried upper shoots and leaves, the fresh or dried basal leaves, or a mixture of the aerial plant parts from Artemisia absinthium, harvested during flowering season from cultivated or wild plants, and dried in the sun.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.kill parasites and antiparasitic effect; ②.bitters and aid digestion; ③.reduce biliary colic; ④.liver protection; ⑤.inhibit malaria bacteria; ⑥.anticancer effects, etc.

 The volatile oil of wormwood has component absinthol, thujone, and bitters. Thujone can paralyze parasites including roundworms, threadworms, and other parasites, to expel them, other wormwood components fight parasites too, but thujone can slow down the central nervous system, so the herb is dangerous for this purpose. Artemisia compounds become concentrated in parasite-infected erythrocytes where they are thought to cause free-radical damage to parasite membranes, the parasite is then phagocytosed and cleared by leukocytes.

 The bitters in wormwood explain the herb's traditional use as an appetite stimulant and gas remedy, it stimulates the bitter receptors in the taste buds of the tongue, when bitter agents are introduced into the mouth, they trigger a reflexive increase of stomach secretion with higher acid concentration, it also controls spasms in the biliary tract, reduces biliary colic.

 Wormwood has the potential for preventing and curing liver damage in mouse studies, and it may fight malaria bacteria.

 Anticancer effects: a combination of dihydroartemisinin and halotransferrin selectively killed tumor cells over control cells.

 Medicinal efficacy: Wormwood preparations were used to kill intestinal parasites since ancient times, it was used as a stomach tonic, digestive aid, appetite stimulant, sedative, sweat-inducer, liver remedy, menstrual stimulant, and topical antiseptic. In Europe, the herb is approved for loss of appetite, dyspeptic complaints, and dyskinesia of the bile ducts. In folk medicine, wormwood preparations are used internally for gastric insufficiency, intestinal atonia, gastritis, stomachache, liver disorders, bloating, anemia, irregular menstruation, intermittent fever, loss of appetite, and worm infestation. Externally, the herb is applied for poorly healing wounds, ulcers, skin blotches, and insect bites.

 TCM works recorded the herb functions clearing heat and eliminating dampness, dispelling roundworms, and strengthening the stomach. It is indicated for joint pain swelling, eczema itching, furuncle swelling, and sore poison, roundworm disease, poor appetite.

 Administration of Wormwood (Bitter Artemesia of Central Asia): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Wormwood (Bitter Artemesia of Central Asia)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books: Dosage: An infusion prepared using 1 teaspoon of dried flowering tops of wormwood per cup of water is drunk before meals as an appetite stimulant or after meals as a digestive aid. The tincture is taken in doses of 4~16 ml, and the liquid herb extract in doses of 1~2 ml. TCM works recommend the herb is internally taken as water decoction, 3~6 grams, externally proper amount, wash with water decoction, or prepare an ointment and apply a coating.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Wormwood's volatile oil is dangerous, for its component thujone can produce uncomfortable and even terrifying symptoms such as vomiting, severe diarrhea, stomach cramps, urinary retention, thirst, kidney damage, tremors, vertigo, seizures, intellectual deterioration, psychosis, hallucinations, stupor, and convulsions. Many countries, while banning the use of the herb's oil and alcoholic extracts, permit thujone-free preparations as well as liquid extracts such as teas. The FDA considers wormwood an unsafe herb and approves of thujone-free preparations only for use in foods. Even thujone-free wormwood preparations should be used in moderation. Individuals with stomach or intestinal disorders should probably avoid it altogether. Topical preparations may cause skin eruptions in sensitized individuals, most members of the daisy plant family are allergenic.




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