Introduction of Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí:Syringa reticulata stem-bark or Cortex Syringae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Antitussives Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon02 Introduction: Antitussives Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that stops coughing.

 
Cortex Syringae.

Cortex Syringae Pin Yin Name: Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí.
 English Name: Syringa reticulata stem-bark.
 Latin Name: Cortex Syringae.
 Property and flavor: slight warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Cortex Syringae is the dried stem-bark of Syringa reticulata(Bl.) Hara var.mandshurica(Maxim.) Hara(family Oleaceae), used as an antipyretic, antitussive and diuretic for treating acute or chronic bronchitis, asthma, and cardiac edema. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Syringae, Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí.

 Botanical source: The herb Cortex Syringae is the dried stem-bark of Syringa reticulata(Bl.) Hara var.mandshurica(Maxim.) Hara, it is a plant of Syringa Linn. Genus, the Oleaceae family of the Contortae order. It is also known as Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí.

 Syringa reticulata Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Cortex Syringae as the dried stem-bark of:(1). Syringa reticulata(Bl.) Hara var.mandshurica(Maxim.) Hara. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 (1).Syringa reticulata(Bl.)Hara var.mandshurica(Maxim.)Hara.:
 Botanical description: Small deciduous trees, 4~10 meters tall. Bark purple-grayish brown, with fine cracks. Branch green or slightly purple halo, sparse lenticels. Leaves opposite; Petiole 1~2.5 cm long, glabrous; Leaf blade thickly papery, broadly ovate, ovate to elliptic ovate, or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5~13 cm long, 1~6 cm wide, apex shortly caudate to caudate acuminate or acute, base often rounded. Panicles growing from 1 to 1 at most opposite lateral shoots on the same branch; Inflorescence axis lenticular; Pedicels 2 mm long; Calyx 1.5~2 mm long, calyx teeth obtuse, convex or truncated; Corolla white, radial, 4~5 mm in diameter, corolla tube ca. 1.5 mm, lobes ovate, 2~3 mm long, apex acute; Filaments slender, stamens nearly twice as long as corolla lobes, anthers yellow. Capsule oblong, 1.5~2 cm long, apex often obtuse, or acute, convex, smooth or with minute lenticels. The tree is flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to October.

 Syringa reticulata Ecological environment: The plant grows in thickets, forest margins, or mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests on slopes with an altitude of 100~1,200 meters above sea level. Cultivated. Resources distribution: The plant mainly distributes in the north, west north, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The tree grows in thickets, forest margins or mixed coniferous broad-leaved forests on the slopes at an altitude of 100~1200 meters above sea level, it is also cultivated.

 Characters of herbs: this herb is shallow groove shape or plate shape, concave, different length, thickness 2~7 mm. Outer surface dark gray-brown, smooth skin, shiny, old skin rough, turtle crack; Transverse lenticels elliptic, light brown, emboli thin and tough, can be transverse peel, shed the place shows light yellow to light yellowish-green, microstrip luster. Inner surface is yellowish to yellowish-brown. Brittle, easy to break, the section is not neat. Slightly fragrant, bitter taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Expectorant Effects:Both mice or rabbits with oral administration or intraperitoneal injection of whole cortex solution had significant expectorant effects. The effective components of expectorant effect are phenols and flavonoids. ②.Antiasthmatic effect: Guinea pigs oral decoction of whole cortex has obvious antiasthmatic effect. The active components of antiasthematic effect are terpenoids. Mice given whole-cortex water decoction with nearly toxic amount still had no antitussive effect(ammonia spray method). The neutral portion of the bark's ethanol extract has a relieving cough effect. ③.In rats of experimental chronic bronchitis gavage 20 g/kg; a total of 20 days, no relieving cough effect, but can reduce Ⅲ bronchial epithelium hypertrophy, make all levels of bronchial goblet cells decrease in the number, tracheal glands hyperplasia of hypertrophy and acini, fewer catheter sticky liquid, but has no obvious effect on chronic inflammatory cells infiltration and lymphatic tissue. ④.Bacteriostatic Effect:the whole cortex and endothelial water decoction have moderate bacteriostatic effect on diplococcus pneumoniae and Bacilli influenza, while the whole branch water decoction has only mild inhibition. Wood heart water decoction has no effect. The whole cortex water decoction has no effect on the phagocytosis and capillary permeability of the reticuloendothelial system. ⑤.Antipyretic Effect: the water extract of Syringa Vulgaris, a plant of the same species, is antipyretic when administered orally or intraperitoneally to februlent rabbits and cats.

 Medicinal efficacy: Open the inhibited lung-energy and resolving phlegm, relieve cough and prevent asthma, alleviate water retention, indicated for chronic bronchitis, asthma, cardiac edema.

 Administration of Cortex Syringae(Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cortex Syringae(Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí)
TCM Books: Internally:0.5~1 liang(about 15~30 grams), water decoction(DCTM), or water decoction, 15~30 grams, or grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bào Mǎ Zǐ Pí:Syringa reticulata stem-bark or Cortex Syringae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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