Introduction of Pu Gong Ying:Dandelion or Herba Taraxaci.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Dandelion, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source two plant species, ①.Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz., ②.Taraxacum sinicum Kitag., and other defined usable Taraxacum species, ③.Taraxacum heterolepis Nakai et H.Koidz., ④.Taraxacum asiaticum Dahlst., ⑤.Taraxacum erpyhropodium kitag., ⑥.Taraxacum leucanthum Ledeb., ⑦.Taraxacum platypecidum Diels., ⑧.Taraxacum brassicaefolium Kitag., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these eight plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these eight plant species, the features of the herb Dandelion, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Taraxaci(Dandelion).

Dandelion Root Pin Yin Name: Pú Gōnɡ Yīnɡ.
 English Name: Dandelion.
 Latin Name: Herba Taraxaci.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Taraxaci is the dried entire plant of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz., Taraxacum sinicum Kitag., or several other Taraxacum species(family Compositae), used for boils, sores and other pyogenic infections. The herb is commonly known as Herba Taraxaci, Dandelion, Pú Gōnɡ Yīnɡ.

 Botanical source: The herb Herba Taraxaci(Dandelion) is the dried entire plant of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz., Taraxacum sinicum Kitag., or several other Taraxacum species, the herbal classic book defined the botanical source as ①.Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz., ②.Taraxacum borealisinense Kitam.(another name of Taraxeamum sinicum Kitag.), or ③.several other plant species of the same genus, they are plants of the Taraxacum genus, the Asteraceae(Compositae) family of the Asterales order. These 8 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.


 Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is the common Dandelion, or known as "Pu Gong Ying", the whole plant crimped curly clumps. Root conical, multi-curved, 3~7 cm long, the surface of brown, wrinkled, the head of the tan yellow and white hair, some have fallen off. Leaves basal, multi-wrinkled broken, complete leaf needle oblanceolate, 6~15 cm long, 2~3.5 cm wide, greenish-brown or dark gray, apex acute or obtuse, margin lobed or pinnatifid split, lobes dentate Or triangular, base attenuates, the next was stalked, the main surface of the underlying obvious was arachnoid hair. Stems 1 to several, each top turtle hairy. Flowering stems 1 to several, each terminal flower head; involucral bracts multi-layer, the total number of bracts outside the layer, with or without a small horn at the front, the inner 1 layer is 1.5~2 times longer than the outer layer, a small angle apex, corolla Tan or yellowish-white. Some see the majority of white-crested oval oblong fruit. Slightly bitter smell. Round achenes. Light smells, slightly bitter taste.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillside grassland, roadsides, roadsides, riverbanks, sandy land, and fields. The plant distributes in the north, east, central, southwest areas of China.

 Dandelion Root:thick root Characters of herbs: The whole herb is a wizen curly lump. The root is conical, often curved, 3~7 cm long, the surface is brown and wrinkled, there are yellow and white hairs on the root head, some of which have fallen off. The leaves grow from the base, wrinkled and broken, the full leaf is inverted lanceolate, 6~15 cm long and 2~3.5 cm wide, green-brown or dark gray, the apex is sharp or blunt, the edges are slightly lobed or pinnately divided, the lobes are toothed or triangular, the base is tapered, the downward extension is stalk-shaped, and the main veins on the lower surface are obvious, covered with spider silk-like hair. Flowers have 1 to several stems, each of which has corona-like hairs, each with a capitulum; The involucral bracts are multi-layered, the outer involucral bracts have several layers, with or without small horns at the apex, the inner layer is 1.5~2 times longer than the outer layer, the apex has small horns, and the corolla is yellowish brown or light yellowish white. It can be seen that some achenes are mostly long elliptic with white pappus. The herb has a mild odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb which has more leaves, green and long roots is better.

 Dandelion Root:thick root slices Pharmacological actions: ①.strong inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, and others; It also has a certain inhibitory effect on diphtheria bacillus, pyomonas aeruginosa, proteus, dysentery, typhoid, and catacoccus; ②.inhibit gastric acid secretion, have the function of resisting ulcers and protecting gastric mucosa; ③.antagonizes endotoxin.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and detoxifying, detumescent(reduce swelling) and dissipate stasis, diuresis and eliminating stagnation, diuresis and treating stranguria. It is indicated for furuncle swollen poison, acute mastitis, lymphadenitis, scrofula, furunculosis and sore swollen, acute conjunctivitis, red eyes, red eyes and swelling, pharyngalgia(sore throat), cough, pulmonary abscess, periappendicular abscess, mumps, damp-heat jaundice, pyretic stranguria and pain, cold and fever, sore throat and swelling, acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis, stomach fire, gastritis, hepatitis, enteritis, dysentery, cholecystitis, urinary tract infection, snake insect bites.

 Administration of Herba Taraxaci(Pú Gōnɡ Yīnɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Taraxaci(Pú Gōnɡ Yīnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams. Externally:fresh herb, mashed and apply stick, or fumigation wash the affected area with water decoction; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 qian(about 9~30 grams), big dosage could be 2 liang(about 60 grams);extract juice or prepare to powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, big dosage could be 60 grams, or extract juice; or prepare to powder. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick.

(2).Taraxeamum sinicum Kitag.


 Taraxeamum sinicum Kitag.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as Alkali lands Dandelion, or "Jian Di Pu Gong Ying", or "Hua Pu Gong Ying", also known as "Taraxacum borealisinense Kitam.", it leaves obovate branches appearance or narrow-lanceolate, length about 48 cm, width 1.2~1.5 cm, often more regular pinnately split, lobes 3~7 pairs, apex lobes long-form, apex or hook, Base narrow, few glabrous. The total bracts 3 layers, the outer layer 2 front few corners, the inner 1 layer longer than the outer 2 times.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in slightly damp saline-alkali fields or fields. The plant distributes in the north area of China. The apex without angular projections; Corolla is yellow; Achenes are lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long, beak 4~5.5 mm.

 Characters of herbs: The leaves are obovate or narrowly lanceolate, about 48 cm long and 1.2~1.5 cm wide. They are often regularly pinnately parted, with 3~7 pairs of lobes. The apex lobes are oblong, the apex is pointed or hooked, the base is narrow and long, and almost hairless. The involucral bracts are 3-layered, the apex of the outer layer 2 has few horns, and the inner layer is twice as long as the outer layer. The herb which has more leaves, green and long roots is better.

(3).Taraxacum heterolepis Nakai et H.Koidz.


 Taraxacum heterolepis Nakai et H.Koidz.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as "Yi Bao Pu Gong Ying", Petiole base slightly purplish red, arachnoid hairy; leaf oblanceolate, 12~15 cm long, 3~4 cm wide, apex, base narrow, margin pinnate, lobes wide or narrowly triangular, apex acute, Sparse teeth across the board or two were spider silk white hair; old leaves near smooth. The total bracts 3 layers, the outer layer has a small angle, the inner layer is 1.5~2 times longer than the outer layer, slightly smaller angle. This species was collected in CP ever since CP1977, was collected and recorded since the Chinese Traditional Medicine Records 2nd Edition of 1988.

 The Taraxacum heterolepis has thick root, leaf hypertrophy, biomass larger. Early spring is one of the earliest plants to return to green, beginning in early April in northeast China. The flowering period is very long, it is more concentrated in June-July and has been extended to September. Fruit from July to September. The Taraxacum heterolepis is stronger in ecological adaptability, can grow in a more humid environment and slightly saline soil. Usually grows in the wet grassland, roadside or near the edge of the forest.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in the wild, hillside roadside, or streamside. The plant mainly distributes in the northeast area of China.

 Characters of herbs: The petiole base is slightly purplish red, covered with spider silk-like hair; The leaves are inverted lanceolate, 12~15 cm in length and 3~4 cm in width, with sharp apex, narrow and long base, pinnately parted edges, lobes are broad or narrow triangular, the apex is sharp, whole edge, or there are spidery white hairs on both sides of surface or sparse teeth edge; The old leaves are nearly smooth. The involucral bract has 3 layers, the outer layer has small horns, the inner layer is 1.5~2 times longer than the outer layer, and with slightly small horns. The herb which has more leaves, green and long roots is better.

(4).Taraxacum asiaticum Dahlst.


 Taraxacum asiaticum Dahlst.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as "Ya Zhou Pu Gong Ying" or "Asian Dandelion", leaves narrow or narrow-shaped, 2.5~9 cm long, wide 0.3~0.9 cm, pinnately lobed to deep cleft, lobes slightly inverted, triangle shape to the bar, the top lobes larger, or shaped or Narrow-shaped, glabrous or sparsely pilose. Outer bracts do not have an obvious small angle, the inner layer is longer than the outer layer of 2~2.5 times, no obvious small angle.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in the field. The plant mainly distributes in the north area of China.

 Characters of herbs: Asian Dandelion: The leaves are strip-shaped or narrow-lanceolate in shape, 2.5~9 cm long and 0.3~0.9 cm wide, with feather-like pinnately lobed to deeply lobed, slightly inverted lobes, triangular boat-shaped to strip-shaped, top lobes are larger, or narrow-faced, glabrous or sparsely pilose. The outer involucral bract has inconspicuous small horns, and the inner layer is 2~2.5 times longer than the outer layer, without obvious small horns. The herb which has more leaves, green and long roots is better.

(5).Taraxacum erpyhropodium kitag.


 Taraxacum erpyhropodium kitag.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as "Hong Geng Pu Gong Ying" or "Red Stalk Dandelion", petiole short, reddish-purple brown; leaf blade oblanceolate or broadly oblong-obovate, 8~12 cm long, 2.5~3 cm wide, smooth, obovoid, base narrowed, margin regularly pinnate, lobes triangular, entire or Sparse teeth, red spots on the surface, both sides of spider silk hairy. The total bracts 3 layers, the inner layer 1 layer longer than the outer layer 2.5 times, Stamens color light purple, a small angle.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides by the roadside, beside ditches, or in saline areas. The plant mainly distributes in the north, northwest, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: Red Stalk Dandelion: The herb has short petiole, red purple brown, the leaf is long inverted lanceolate shape or broad inverted lanceolate shape, 8~12 cm long and 2.5~3 cm wide, the end is blunt, the base is narrow, regular pinnately parted edge, triangular lobes, full edge or sparse teeth edge, there are red spots on the surface and spider silk-hairs on both surface. The involucral bracts have 3 layers, and the inner layer is 2.5 times longer than the outer layer, bright purple with small horns. The herb which has more leaves, green and long roots is better.

(6).Taraxacum leucanthum Ledeb.


 Taraxacum leucanthum Ledeb.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as "White Flower Dandelion" or "Bai Hua Pu Gong Ying", its other name is Taraxacum pseudo-albidum Kitag., perennial dwarf herb. The root of the neck is numerous dark brown residual leaf base leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly entire to shallowly lobed, few for the half-split, with small teeth, long 2~3~5~8 cm, 2~5 mm wide, glabrous on both surfaces. Scape 1 to several, 2~6 cm long, glabrous or apically sparsely cordate pilose at the top; capitulum 25~30 mm in diam.; Involucre 9~13 mm, total bracts faded Dark green or dark green, apex with a small angle or thickened; outer bracts ovate-lanceolate, slightly wider than to ca. as wide as inner bracts, with broad membranous margin; ligulate usually white, pale yellow, edge flower tongue back with dark stripes, stigma dry when black. Achenes obovate-oblong, dry straw yellow to light brown or grayish brown, 4 mm long, upper 1/4 with spines, apically constricted to 0.5~1.2 mm long beak base, beak stout, long 3~6 mm. Crested long 4~5 mm, with pink or thin dirt. Its fruiting period is from June to August. It grows in China area at 2,500~6,000 meters above sea level, hillside wet grassland, valleys, beaches, and marsh meadow. It also spread in Iran, Pakistan, and other countries. Mode specimens grow at the Altai mountains.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on meadow or riverbank. The plant mainly distributes in the north, northwest areas, and provinces Hebei, Sichuan of China.

(7).Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.


 Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as "Mountain Dandelion" or "Bai Yuan Pu Gong Ying", perennial herb. Root neck with dark brown remnant petioles. Leaves broadly oblanceolate or lanceolate-oblanceolate, 10~30 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, pinnately divided, 5-8 lobes on each side, lobes triangular, entire or sparsely toothed, lateral Larger lobes, triangular, sparsely arachnoid pilose or glabrous. Scape 1 to several, up to 45 cm, upper densely white spiderlike cottony; head large, ca. 40~45 mm in diam.; involucral broadly bell-shaped, 15~17 mm long, 4-layer, apex with or without horn; outer bracts broadly ovate, dark green central band, the edge of a broad white film quality, the top pink, thinning eyelashes, the inner bracts oblong linear or linear-lanceolate, ca. 2 × as long as outer eyelid; bracts yellow, margin flowers with purplish stripes on back, style and stigmas dark green, when dry ± black. Achenes light brown, about 4 mm long, 1~1.4 mm wide, the top of the spiny nodules, the top suddenly constricted into a conical to cylindrical beak base, beak base length of about 1 millimeter, beak slender, 8~12 mm long crested white, 7~10 mm long. Fruit period from March to June. Growing at the area of the altitude of 1,900 meters to 3,400 meters, found in hillside grassland and roadside, has not yet been introduced by artificial cultivation.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in areas at an altitude between 1,900 and 3,400 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in the north, the northeast, the upper reaches area of the Yellow River, the Hanjiang river area, Sichuan, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The capitulum is larger, the outer involucral bracts are broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the center has dark green broad band, the edge has obvious white broad membranous, the apex is pink, and there is no angular protrusion; The inner involucral bracts are oblong and strip-shaped, with no angular protrusion. The achenes are light brown, with thorn shape protrusions on the upper part, 1~1.2 cm long.

(8).Taraxacum brassicaefolium Kitag.


 Taraxacum brassicaefolium Kitag.:flowering plant Botanical description: This species is commonly known as "Mustard leaf Dandelion" or "Jie Ye Pu Gong Ying", perennial herb. Leaves broadly oblanceolate, or broadly linear, resembling mustard leaves, 10~35 cm long, 2.5~6 cm wide, pinnately fissured or large-furred half-cleft, base attenuate into short-stalked, winged; Lateral lobes equaling triangle or linear, often upwardly or deciduous, entire or denticulate, without or sharply denticulate between lobes; apical lobes an equilateral triangle, exceedingly wide, entire. Scape number, height 30~50 cm, thick, sparsely arachnoid pilose, smooth, often purple-brown; head inflorescence diameter of 55 mm; involucral broadly bell-shaped, 22 mm long, base circle shaped or cut round, apex with short hornlike protrusions; outer bracts narrowly ovate or linear-lanceolate; inner bracts linear-lanceolate, apex purplish; inflorescences with small oval Membrane care tablets; tongue flowers yellow, edge flowers tongue with purple stripes on the back. Achenes oblong-oblong, pale greenish-brown, ca. 4 mm, upper prickle-like, middle with short, blunt nodules, lower part smoothing, apex abruptly constricted into a cylindrical beak base, long 0.5~0.7 mm, beak 10~15 mm long; crested white, 7~9 mm long. Its fruiting period is from April to June.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on the river bank, forest edge, and roadside. The plant mainly distributes in the northeast, Hebei east, and other areas of China.
 
Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

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  • 1.Introduction of Pu Gong Ying:Dandelion or Herba Taraxaci.

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