Introduction of Ye Ju Hua:Wild Chrysanthemum Flower or Flos chrysanthmi Indici.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Chrysanthemum indicum L., ②.Pyrethrum lauandulifolium Fisch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower).

Wild Chrysanthemum Flower:dried herb Pin Yin Name: Yě Jú Huā.
 English Name: Wild Chrysanthemum Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos chrysanthmi Indici.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici is the dried flower-head of Chrysanthemum indicum L.(family Compositae), used to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, carbuncles, erysipelas, acute conjunctivitis, and also externally for eczema and skin itching. The herb is commonly known as Flos chrysanthmi Indici, Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, Yě Jú Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower) is the dried flower-head of Chrysanthemum indicum L., it is a plant of the Chrysanthemum(mums or chrysanths) genus, the Asteraceae(Compositae) family of the Asterales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower) as the dried flower-head of species (1). Chrysanthemum indicum L. or (2). Pyrethrum lauandulifolium Fisch. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Chrysanthemum indicum L.

 Chrysanthemum indicum L.:flowers Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yě Jú Huā. Chrysanthemums have dark green, deeply lobed and aromatic leaves with soft grey undersides. They come in a wide variety of flower shapes, sizes, and colors, from dark burgundy, bronzes, and oranges, to lavenders, light pastel pinks, and whites. The hundreds of cultivars of mums are classified by flower shape: pompons are double and ball-shaped; reflexed are double with downward curving rays; spiders are double with long tubular, spreading rays; spoons are semi-double with spoon-shaped rays, and there are several other shapes. All the garden mums bloom in late summer or fall and many cultivars flower in spring as well. Plants may be low and spreading or may reach up to 5'.

 Chrysanthemum indicum L.:flowering plants The flowering plant grows to 0.6 meters. It is in flower from August to October. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. It cannot grow in the shade and requires moist soil. As a herb, it is harvested in autumn when the flower is in full bloom. Dry it in the sun or bake it until dry and store it for later use.

 Ecological environment: the wild chrysanthemum grows on hillside grasslands, thickets, river water wetlands, coastal saline lands, field sides, roadsides. The plant mainly distributes in the north, east, central and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Chrysanthemum indicum prefers cool and humid climate, cold resistance. It is advisable to cultivate loam soil with deep soil layer, loose and fertile soil and rich humus. Liming is applied to disinfect the hole. The insect pests are flea beetle, aphid.

 Wild Chrysanthemum Flower:herb photo Characters of herbs: The capitulum(flower heads) are spherical, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, brown and yellow. The involucral bracts have 4~5 layers, the outer bracts are egg-shaped or oval-triangular, 2.5~3 mm long, the middle part of the outer surface is grayish green or light brown, often covered with white hairs, and the edges are membranous; the middle layer bracts are ovate; the inner bracts are long elliptic. There are some residual pedicels at the base of involucre. There is 1 round of lingual flowers, yellow, wrinkled and curled, after flattening, the liguate is 1~1.3 cm long, the apex is whole edge or 2~3 toothed; The tubular flowers are numerous, dark yellow. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, it tastes bitter. The herb which is complete, yellow and fragrant is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.hypotensive effect; ②.antiviral and antibacterial effects: delay the disease of cells infected with orphan virus (human embryonic renal primary monolayer cells), decoction had an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, diphtheria bacillus and dysentery bacillus in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxification, dispel wind and clear heat, dispel wind and calm the liver, detumescence and detoxification. It is indicated for malignant boils, ulcers, red eyes and swelling pain, headache and dizziness, wind-heat cold, pneumonia, diphtheria, gastroenteritis, hypertension, malignant boils, carbuncle, canker(mouth sore), erysipelas, eczema, dermatitis, epidemic blisters, swelling and pain in the throat.

 Administration of Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Yě Jú Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Yě Jú Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.or water decoction, 0.5~2 qian(about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder;③.or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Flos chrysanthmi should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or in conditions deficiency cold of spleen and stomach.

(2).Pyrethrum lauandulifolium Fisch.

 Pyrethrum lauandulifolium Fisch.:flowers Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yán Xiāng Jú Huā, or Rock-Fragrant Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Ling & Shih. The difference between this species and the Chrysanthemum indicum L. is that the leaves are feathery and deeply divided, green or pale green, and the two sides are sparsely covered with slightly more leaved fluff; Inflorescences mostly arranged in loose corymbals or compound corymbals at the top of stem branches, with yellow ligulate flowers. Its flowering period is from May to November.

 Pyrethrum lauandulifolium Fisch.:flowering plants Ecological environment: the rock fragrant chrysanthemum grows on mountain slopes, rocks, river valleys, and riverbanks. The plant mainly distributes in the area of the Yellow River, the area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The diameter of the capitulum(flower heads) is 1~1.5 cm; The involucral bracts have 4~5 layers, and the outer bracts are linear or oblong, 2.5 mm long; The inner bracts are ovate, oblong to oblanceolate. The ligulate flower is yellow, the liguate is oval, 5~7.5 mm long. The herb which is complete, yellow and fragrant is better.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.
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