Introduction of Ye Ju Hua:Wild Chrysanthemum Flower or Flos chrysanthmi Indici.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Chrysanthemum indicum L., ②.Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower).

yellowish dried herb flowers of Wild Chrysanthemum Flower Pin Yin Name: Yě Jú Huā.
 English Name: Wild Chrysanthemum Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos chrysanthmi Indici.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici is the dried capitulum (flower-head) of Chrysanthemum indicum L., used to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, carbuncles, erysipelas, acute conjunctivitis, and also externally for eczema and skin itching. The herb is commonly known as Flos chrysanthmi Indici, Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, Yě Jú Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower) is the dried capitulum (flower-head) of Chrysanthemum indicum L., it is a plant of the Chrysanthemum (mums or chrysanths) genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, daisy family) of the Asterales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici (Wild Chrysanthemum Flower) as the dried capitulum (flower-head) of species (1). Chrysanthemum indicum L. or (2). Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Chrysanthemum indicum L.

 flowering plants of Chrysanthemum indicum L with many white flowers Botanical description: Chrysanthemum indicum L also known as Dendranthema indicum (L). Des Moul, is commonly known as Yě Jú Huā. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 25~100 cm high. The rhizome is thick, and crassitude, branched, with long or short underground stolon. The stem is upright, or the base is spreading out. The basal leaves fall off; cauline leaves are oval (egg-shaped) or oblong-ovate, 6~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, pinnate or inconspicuous split; apical lobes are big, lateral lobes are often in 2 pairs, oval (egg-shaped) or oblong, all lobes are split on edge or serrate; leaves on upper part gradually turn small; all leaves have glands and sparse pilose on the upper surface, the undersurface is celadon (sage green), more hairs, base narrowing into petiole with wings; stipule is serrate.

 flowering plants of Chrysanthemum indicum L with several yellowish flowers Capitulum (flower head) is 2.5~4 or 5 cm in diameter, arranged in stem and branch top, and forms corymbose panicles or irregular corymbals; general involucre is 8~20 mm in diameter, 5~6 mm long; phyllary is wide membraneous on the margin; ligulate flowers are yellow, female; discoid flowers are hermaphroditic, tubular shape.

 Achenes are all the same shape, with 5 extremely thin vertical ribs, without pappus. Its flowering period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The wild chrysanthemum grows in grasslands on hillsides or mountain slopes, bushes, river water wetlands, coastal saline lands, field sides, and roadsides. The plant is mainly distributed in the northern, eastern, central, and southwest areas of China. This species is a species of polymorphism, there is great diversity in morphological characteristics.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Chrysanthemum indicum prefers a cool and humid climate and is resistant to cold. It is advisable to cultivate the plant in the field with deep soil layers, and loose and fertile, humus-rich loam. The scented flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by insects. It cannot grow in the shade and requires moist soil. As an herb, it is harvested in autumn, when the flower is in full bloom. Dry it in the sun or bake it until dry and store it for later use.

 dried yellow herb flower petals of Wild Chrysanthemum Flower in a pile Characters of herbs: Capitula (flower heads) are near-spherical, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter and yellowish brown. The involucral bracts are in 4~5 layers, the bracts of the out layer are oval (egg-shaped) or ovate-triangular, 2.5~3 mm long, and the middle part of the out surface is celadon (sage green or grayish green) or pale brown, often covered with white hairs, and the edges are membranous; the bracts of the middle layer are oval (egg-shaped); the bracts of the inner layer are oblong oval. The base of the involucre has some residual peduncles. Ligulate flowers are in one whorl, yellow, shriveled and curled, after flattening, ligules are 1~1.3 cm long, the apex is entire or has 2~3 teeth; tubular flowers are many, deep yellow. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, and it tastes bitter. The herb of a better grade is complete (intact), yellow, and fragrant.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.hypotensive effect; ②.antiviral and antibacterial effects: delay the disease of cells infected with orphan virus (human embryonic renal primary monolayer cells), decoction had an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, diphtheria bacillus and dysentery bacillus in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxification, dispel wind and clear heat, dispel wind and calm the liver, detumescence and detoxification. It is indicated for malignant boils, ulcers, red eyes and swelling pain, headache and dizziness, wind-heat cold, pneumonia, diphtheria, gastroenteritis, hypertension, malignant boils, carbuncle, canker (mouth sore), erysipelas, eczema, dermatitis, epidemic blisters, swelling and pain in the throat.

 Administration of Flos chrysanthmi Indici (Yě Jú Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos chrysanthmi Indici (Yě Jú Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.or water decoction, 0.5~2 qian (about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder; ③.or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Flos chrysanthmi should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or in conditions deficiency cold of spleen and stomach.

(2).Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch.

 flowering plants of Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch with several yellowish flowers Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Yán Xiāng Jú Huā or Rock-Fragrant Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Ling & Shih.

 A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 0.3~1.5 meters tall, with underground stolons. Stems are upright, many-branched from the middle up or only on the corymbals branches on the upper part. Stem branches are sparsely pilose, but the upper part and peduncles are slightly more piliferous. Basals leaves and leaves on the lower part fall off in the flowering season. Cauline leaves on the middle part are oval (egg-shaped), broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate, 2-5 cm long, and 1.5-4.5 cm wide. The leaves are bipinnatifid, deeply divided, or nearly divided, pinnule leaves are pinnatifid or shallowly lobed. Lateral lobes are in 2-3 (4) pairs. Uppermost leaves or leaves below the inflorescence are pinnately divided, 3-lobed, or undivided. All leave are monochromatic or almost concolorous on both surfaces, sparsely or slightly more pilose or glabrate on the upper surface. Petioles of cauline leaves in the middle part are 0.5-1 cm long, with split auricles or no auricles at the base of the petiole.

 flowering plants of Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch with many small yellow flowers grow on mountain Capitula (flower heads) are 10~15 mm or 20 mm in diameter, usually many arranged on stem branch tip and form loose or slightly dense compound corymb; general involucre is phialiform (disc shape), 5~7 mm in diameter. Involucre bracts are in about 5 layers. Bracts in out layers are linear or linear-oblong, 2.5 mm long, glabrous or sparsely pilose; bracts in the middle and inner layer are oval (egg-shaped), oblong oval to oblanceolate, all bracts are round at the top, the margin is white or sandy beige (pale brown) and membraneous; ligulate flowers are yellow; ligules are elliptic, 5~7.5 mm long, tips are entire or inconspicuously 2-3 toothed.

 Achenes are 1.2~1.5 mm long. Its flowering period and fruiting period are from May to November.

 The difference between this species and the Chrysanthemum indicum L are: leaves are pinnately parted, green or pea green (pale green), and both surfaces are sparsely covered with fluff, or the undersurface slightly more tousy (shaggy) fluff; many capitula (flower heads) are arranged on stem branch tip and form loose corymbals or compound corymb, ligulate flowers are yellow.

 flowering plants of Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch with many yellow flowers Ecological environment: Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch or Rock-Fragrant Chrysanthemum grows on hillsides or mountain slopes, rocks, river valleys, and wasteland on the riverside, loess hilly land, in areas at altitudes of 630~2,800 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the area of the Yellow River, the area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch is widely distributed and highly variable, and is a polytypic species. It has the possibility of hybridization with Dendrantherna indicum. (L.) Des Moul, within the common distribution area.

 Characters of herbs: Capitula (flower heads) are 1~1.5 cm in diameter; involucral bracts are in 4~5 layers, and the bracts in the out layer are linear or linear-oblong, 2.5 mm long; bracts in the middle layer are oval (egg-shaped), oblong oval to oblanceolate. Ligulate flowers are yellow, ligules are elliptic, 5~7.5 mm long. The herb of a better grade is complete (intact), yellow and has a fragrance.



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