Introduction of Ye Ju Hua:Wild Chrysanthemum Flower or Flos chrysanthmi Indici.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Chrysanthemum indicum L., ②.Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower).

Wild Chrysanthemum Flower:dried herb Pin Yin Name: Yě Jú Huā.
 English Name: Wild Chrysanthemum Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos chrysanthmi Indici.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici is the dried capitulum (flower-head) of Chrysanthemum indicum L., used to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, carbuncles, erysipelas, acute conjunctivitis, and also externally for eczema and skin itching. The herb is commonly known as Flos chrysanthmi Indici, Wild Chrysanthemum Flower, Yě Jú Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici(Wild Chrysanthemum Flower) is the dried capitulum (flower-head) of Chrysanthemum indicum L., it is a plant of the Chrysanthemum (mums or chrysanths) genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, daisy family) of the Asterales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos chrysanthmi Indici (Wild Chrysanthemum Flower) as the dried capitulum (flower-head) of species (1). Chrysanthemum indicum L. or (2). Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Chrysanthemum indicum L.

 Chrysanthemum indicum L.:flowers Botanical description: Chrysanthemum indicum L., also known as Dendranthema indicum (L). Des Moul, is commonly known as Yě Jú Huā. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 25~100 cm high. The rhizome is thick and crassitude, branched, with long or short underground stolon. The stem is upright, or the base is spread out. The basal leaves fall off; cauline leaves are oval (egg-shaped) or oblong-ovate, 6~7 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, pinnate or inconspicuous split; apical lobes are big, lateral lobes are often in 2 pairs, oval (egg-shaped) or oblong, all lobes are split on edge or serrate; leaves on upper part gradually turn small; all leaves have glands and sparse pilose on the upper surface, the under surface is celadon (sage green), more hairs, base narrowing into petiole with wings; stipule is serrate.

 Chrysanthemum indicum L.:flowering plants Capitulum (flower head) is 2.5~4 or 5 cm in diameter, arranged in stem and branch top, and forms corymbose panicles or irregular corymbals; general involucre is 8~20 mm in diameter, 5~6 mm long; phyllary is wide membraneous on margin; ligulate flowers are yellow, female; discoid flowers are hermaphroditic, tubular shape.

 Achenes are all the same shape, with 5 extremely thin vertical ribs, without pappus. Its flowering period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The wild chrysanthemum grows in grasslands on hillsides or mountain slopes, bushes, river water wetlands, coastal saline lands, field sides, and roadsides. The plant is mainly distributed in the north, east, central, and southwest areas of China. This species is a species of polymorphism, there is great diversity in morphological characteristics.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Chrysanthemum indicum prefers a cool and humid climate, and cold resistance. It is advisable to cultivate in the field with deep soil layers, and loose and fertile loam rich in humus. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. It cannot grow in the shade and requires moist soil. As a herb, it is harvested in autumn, when the flower is in full bloom. Dry it in the sun or bake it until dry and store it for later use.

 Wild Chrysanthemum Flower:herb photo Characters of herbs: Capitula (flower heads) are near-spherical, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, and yellowish brown. The involucral bracts are in 4~5 layers, the bracts of out layer are oval (egg-shaped) or ovate-triangular, 2.5~3 mm long, and the middle part of the out surface is celadon (sage green or grayish green) or pale brown, often covered with white hairs, and the edges are membranous; the bracts of the middle layer are oval (egg-shaped); the bracts of the inner layer are oblong oval. The base of the involucre has some residual peduncles. Ligulate flowers are in 1 whorl, yellow, shriveled and curled, after flattening, the ligule is 1~1.3 cm long, the apex is entire-edge or 2~3 teeth; Tubular flowers are many, deep yellow. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, it tastes bitter. The herb of better grade is complete, yellow, and fragrant.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.hypotensive effect; ②.antiviral and antibacterial effects: delay the disease of cells infected with orphan virus (human embryonic renal primary monolayer cells), decoction had an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, diphtheria bacillus and dysentery bacillus in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxification, dispel wind and clear heat, dispel wind and calm the liver, detumescence and detoxification. It is indicated for malignant boils, ulcers, red eyes and swelling pain, headache and dizziness, wind-heat cold, pneumonia, diphtheria, gastroenteritis, hypertension, malignant boils, carbuncle, canker (mouth sore), erysipelas, eczema, dermatitis, epidemic blisters, swelling and pain in the throat.

 Administration of Flos chrysanthmi Indici (Yě Jú Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos chrysanthmi Indici (Yě Jú Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.or water decoction, 0.5~2 qian (about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder; ③.or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Flos chrysanthmi should be used cautiously during pregnancy, or in conditions deficiency cold of spleen and stomach.

(2).Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch.

 Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch.:flowers Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yán Xiāng Jú Huā, or Rock-Fragrant Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Ling & Shih.

 A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 0.3~1.5 meters tall, with underground stolons. Stems are upright, much branched from the middle up or only the upper part corymbals branches. Stem branches are sparsely pilose, but the upper part and peduncles are slightly more hairy. Basals leaves and leaves on the lower part fall off in the flowering season. Cauline leaves on the middle part are oval (egg-shaped), broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate, 2-5 cm long, and 1.5-4.5 cm wide. The leaves are bipinnatifid, deeply divided, or nearly divided, pinnule leaves are pinnatifid or shallowly lobed. Lateral lobes are in 2-3(4) pairs. Uppermost leaves or leaves below the inflorescence are pinnately divided, 3-lobed, or undivided. All leaves are monochromatic or almost concolorous on both surfaces, sparsely or slightly more pilose or glabrate on the upper surface. Petioles of cauline leaves in the middle part are 0.5-1 cm long, with split auricles or no auricles at the base of the petiole.

 Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch.:flowering plants on mountain Capitulum (flower head) is 10~15 mm or 20 mm in diameter, usually many arranged on stem branch tip and form loose or slightly dense compound corymb; general involucre is phialiform (disc shape), 5~7 mm in diameter. Involucre bracts are in about 5 layers. Bracts in out layer are linear or linear-oblong, 2.5 mm long, glabrous or sparsely pilose; bracts in the middle and inner layer are oval (egg-shaped), oblong oval to oblanceolate, all bracts are round at the top, the margin is white or sandy beige (pale brown) membraneous. ligulate flowers are yellow; ligule is elliptic, 5~7.5 mm long, tips are entire-edge or 2-3 inconspicuously toothed.

 Achenes are 1.2~1.5 mm long. Its flowering period and fruiting period are from May to November.

 The difference between this species and the Chrysanthemum indicum L.: the leaves are pinnately parted, green or pea green (pale green), and both surfaces are sparsely covered with fluff, or the under surface slightly more tousy (shaggy) fluff; Many capitula (flower heads) arranged on stem branch tip and form loose corymbals or compound corymb, ligulate flowers are yellow.

 Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch.:flowering plants Ecological environment: Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch, or Rock-Fragrant Chrysanthemum grows on hillsides or mountain slopes, rocks, river valleys, and wasteland on the riverside, loess hilly land, in areas with an altitude of 630~2,800 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the area of the Yellow River, the area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Pyrethrum lavandulifolium Fisch is widely distributed and highly variable, and is a polytypic species. It has the possibility of hybridization with Dendrantherna indicum. (L.) Des Moul, within the common distribution area.

 Characters of herbs: The capitula (flower heads) are 1~1.5 cm in diameter; The involucral bracts are in 4~5 layers, and the bracts in out layer are linear or linear-oblong, 2.5 mm long; The bracts in the middle layer are oval (egg-shaped), oblong oval to oblanceolate. Ligulate flowers are yellow, ligule is elliptic, 5~7.5 mm long. The herb of better grade is complete, yellow, and with fragrance.
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