Introduction of Ban Lan Gen:Isatis Root or Radix Isatidis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Isatis Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Isatis indigotica Fort., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Isatis Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Isatidis(Isatis Root).

Isatis Root:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Bǎn Lán Gēn.
 English Name: Isatis Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Isatidis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Isatidis is the dried root of Isatis indigotica Fort., used to clear heat, counteract toxins and cool the blood in the treatment of warm diseases with fever, headache and sore throat, eruptive epidemic diseases, mumps, boils, sores and erysipelas. The herb is commonly known as Radix Isatidis, Isatis Root, Bǎn Lán Gēn.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Isatidis (Isatis Root) is the dried root of (1). Isatis indigotica Fort., it is a plant of the Isatis genus, the Brassicaceae family (Cruciferae, mustard family) of the Brassicales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Isatis indigotica Fort.

 Isatis indigotica Fort.:growing plant Botanical description: Isatis indigotica Fort. is also known as Isatis indigotica Fortune, is a plant of the Brassicaceae family (Cruciferae, mustard family) and Isatis genus, commonly known as Song Lan. A biennial herb, the plant grows up to 50~100 cm high. The stem is upright, smooth and glabrous, often covered with pruina. The root is hypertrophic, subconical, 20~30 cm long, 2~3 cm in diameter, and the surface is khaki, with short transverse striation and few fibrous roots. Basal leaves are rosette-shape, with stalks, leaf blade is oblong to broadly oblanceolate, 5~15 cm long, 1.5~4 cm wide, apex is bluntly pointed, entire-edge, or slightly corrugated, with circular auricles or inconspicuous; apical cauline leaves are wide strip-shaped, entire-edge, sessile.

 Isatis indigotica Fort.:growing shrub Racemes are apical or axillary, and form conical shape on the branch tip; flower bracts 4, broadly ovate or wide lanceolate, 2~3 cm long; 4 petals, yellow, broadly cuneate, 3~4 mm long, the apex is sub-truncate, entire-edge, the base has inconspicuous short claws; 6 stamens, 4 long stamens, and 2 short stamens, long stamen are 3~3.2 mm long, short stamens are 2~2.2 mm long; pistil 1, the ovary is subcylindrical, style boundary is inconspicuous, stigma is truncated.

 Silicules are almost oblong, oblate, and glabrous, the margin has membranous wings, wings on two ends are wider, and mericarps have midrib. 1 seed, oblong, hazel (pale brown). Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from May to June.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in moist places on the edge of the mountain forest. Wild or cultivated. Resource distribution: The plant is native to China, and now it is cultivated all over the country.

 Growth characteristics: Isatis indigotica Fort. likes a wet warm environment, is tolerant to cold, avoids water logging, and better chooses the field with good drainage, loose and fertile sandy loam for cultivation.

 Isatis Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The root is cylindrical, slightly twisted, 10~20 cm long, and 0.5~1 cm in diameter. The surface is ravous (pale grayish yellow) or pale yellowish-brown, with vertical wrinkles and transverse lenticels, and with rootlets or rootlet marks; The root head is slightly enlarged, and there is visible dark green or dark brown petiole residue arranged in a whorl, petiole marks, and dense verrucous protrusions. The root is firm, the texture of the herb is slightly soft, the fracture surface is slightly flat, the cortex is yellowish-white, accounting for about 1/2~3/4 of the radius, and the woody part is yellow. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sweet and then bitter puckery. The herb of better grade is in a long strip, thick and big, firm and solid.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antimicrobial effect: Radix Isatidis has an inhibitory effect on a variety of bacteria, and the aqueous infusing liquid has an inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Typhoid bacillus, Dysentery bacillus, Enteritis bacillus, and so on. ②.Anti-leptospirosis effect; ③.Detoxification.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat, detoxification, cool blood, benefits throat. It is indicated for febrile virulent maculae, hyperthermia with headache, purplish dark tongue, swelling of the pharynx, mumps, pharyngitis, scarlet fever, erysipelas on the head, erysipelas,  carbuncles, sore swelling, influenza, epidemic encephalitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, pestilent maculae, coma and spitting blood, pinkeye, herpes, varicella, measles, purplish dark tongue, used for prevention and treatment of epidemic encephalitis B, acute and chronic hepatitis, epidemic mumps, influenza, osteomyelitis. 

 Administration of Radix Isatidis (Bǎn Lán Gēn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Isatidis (Bǎn Lán Gēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 liang (about 15~30 grams); ③.Internally:water decoction, 15~30 grams, big dosage could be 60~120 grams,or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,fumigation wash with water decoction.

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