Introduction of Lian Qiao:Weeping Forsythia Fruit or Fructus Forsythiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Weeping Forsythia Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Weeping Forsythia Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Forsythiae(Weeping Forsythia Fruit).

dried herb fruit pieces of Fructus Forsythiae Pin Yin Name: Lián Qiáo.
 English Name: Weeping Forsythia Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Forsythiae.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Forsythiae is the dried fruit of weeping forsthia, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, often used together with honeysuckle flower (1).to clear heat, counteract toxins and dissipate nodulation in cases of boils, sores and abscesses, and (2).to disperse wind-heat for wind-heat afflictions and warm diseases at the early stage. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Forsythiae, Weeping Forsythia Fruit, Lián Qiáo.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Forsythiae (Weeping Forsythia Fruit) is the dried fruit of (1).Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl., it is a plant of the Forsythia genus, the Oleaceae family (olive family) of the Lamiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl.

 dried herb fruits of Forsythia suspensa and flowers Botanical description: Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl is also known as Syringa suspensa Thunb., is a plant of the Oleaceae family (olive family) and Forsythia Vahl genus, it is commonly known as Forsythia suspensa, or Lian Qiao. Deciduous shrubs. Branchlets are khaki or taupe (dust color), slightly prismatic, with sparse lenticels, nodes are hollow inside, and joints have farctate pith. Leaves are usually simple leaves, or 3-lobed to trifoliolate leaves; petioles are 0.8~1.5 cm long, glabrous; leaf blades are oval (egg-shaped), broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate to elliptic, 2~10 cm long, 1.5~5 cm wide, the apex is sharply pointed, the base is circular to cuneate, except for the base the leaf edge has sharp serrations or coarse serrations, the upper surface is dark green, the undersurface is pale yellowish green, both surfaces are glabrous; petioles are 0.8~1.5 cm long, glabrous.

 flowering plant of Forsythia suspensa with green leaves and many yellow flowers Flowers are usually solitary, or 2 to several flowers grow in leaf axils, blooming before leaves sprout; pedicels are 5~6 mm long; the calyx is green, 4 lobes, oblong or oblong-elliptic, with cilia on edge, nearly as long as corolla tube; corolla is yellow, 4 bracts, bracts are obovate-oblong, 1.2~2 cm long, 6~10 mm wide; pistil is 5~7 mm long, 2 stamens, 3~5 mm long, insert on the base of flora tube; style is thin and long, stigma is 2-lobed.

 Capsularfruit is ovoid, ovate-elliptic or oblong, 2-loculed, 1.2~2.5 cm long, 0.6~1.2 cm wide, apex is beak-shaped acuminate (coronoid acuminate), the surface has sparsely lenticels or nodules; carpopodiums (fruit stalks) are 0.7~1.5 cm long. Its flowering period is from March to April, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Ecological environment: The shrub grows in bushes, open forests, and grassland on hillsides or mountain slopes. It is mainly distributed in the area of Yellow River, the area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It is also cultivated.

 Growth characteristics: Forsythia suspensa prefers warm and humid climates. Strong adaptability, it is tolerant to cold, barren land. It likes sufficient sunshine. Its soil requirements are not strict, the plant can grow in humus soil and sandy gravel soil.

 dried herb fruits of Weeping Forsythia Fruit Characters of herbs: The fruit is ovate-oblong to oval (egg-shaped), slightly flat, 1~2.5 cm long, and 0.5~1.3 cm in diameter. The herb Lao Qiao (old Forsythia Fruit) mostly cracks from the front end, slightly retroflexed outward or split into two carpels, with a carpopodium (fruit stalk) or its broken mark at the base, the outer surface of the carpel is yellow-brown, with irregular vertical wrinkles and many convex pale yellow nodular spots, fewer nodular spots at the base, and a vertical concave groove at the center; the inner surface is pale yellowish-brown, smooth and light glossy, with a vertical partition in the center, many seeds falling off, the pericarp is hard and brittle, the fracture surface is flat. The herb Qing Qiao (Green Forsythia Fruit) mostly is not crack, and surface is greenish-brown, with fewer nodular spots, mostly have carpopodiums (fruit stalks) at the base, many seeds in it, lanceolate, slightly curved, about 0.7 cm long, and 0.2 cm wide, the surface is brown, has narrow wings on one side. The herb is slightly fragrant, and it tastes bitter. The herb Qing Qiao (Green Forsythia Fruit) of a better grade is green and does not crack; the herb Lao Qiao (Old Forsythia Fruit) of a better grade is yellow, has large carpel and thick shell.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antibacterial effect: concentrate decoction of Fructus forsythiae has an antibacterial effect in vitro, which can inhibit Typhoid bacillus, Paratyphoid bacillus, Escherichia coli, Dysentery bacillus, Diphtheria bacillus, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and so on. The antimicrobial activity of forsythia in vitro was similar to that of honeysuckle, and it is the main antimicrobial component of yinqiao powder. ②.Other effects: inhibit the emetic effect, antiemetic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat, detoxify, dissipate stagnation and detumescence (reduce swelling). It is indicated for ulcer, scrofulous, acute mastitis, erysipelas, macules, wind-heat colds, warm disease, onset of warm disease, fever of warm disease, warm and heat enter into the Ying system, high fever and polydipsia, coma and macula, carbuncles sores swelling poison, ulcer, scrofula, galls, pharyngitis, leaching, pyretic stranguria and urodialysis.

 Administration of Fructus Forsythiae (Lián Qiáo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Forsythiae (Lián Qiáo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.




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