Introduction of Zhong Lou:Paris Rhizome or Rhizoma Paridis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Paris Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara., ②.Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of two plant species, the features of the herb Paris Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Paridis(Paris Rhizome).

Rhizoma Paridis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zhònɡ Lóu.
 English Name: Paris Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Paridis.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Paridis is the dried rhizome of Paris polyphylla Smith var.yunnanensis (Franch.) Hara, used for treating acute pyogenic inflammations, and also used as an anticonvulsive in the treatment of infantile convulsion. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Paridis, Paris Rhizome, Zhònɡ Lóu.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Paridis(Paris Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1). Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara., or (2). Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. They are plants of the Paris L. genus, Liliaceae family (lily family), and Liliflorae order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara.


 Paris polyphylla Smith var.chinenisi Franch Hara.:flowering plant Botanical description: Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara is also known as Paris chinensis Franch.(P.chinensis Franch.), it is commonly known as Huá Zhònɡ Lóu. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 30~100 cm tall. The rhizome is hypertrophic, tawny (yellow brown), 1~3 cm in diameter, the surface is rough with conspicuous nodes. The stem is simple, upright, cylindrical, often prunus (violet red) or cyanose, there are 1~3 membraneous leaf sheaths holding the stem at the base. Leaves grow apically in a whorl on tip of stems, 5~9, usually 7; petioles are 5~18 mm long; leaf blades are oblong-lanceolate, obovate-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 8~27 cm long, 2.2~10 cm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed or acuminate, the base is cuneate, entire, membraneous or thin chartaceous (papery).

 Pedicels grow from the center of verticillate leaves, usually longer than the leaf, one flower grows apically; flowers are hermaphroditic, 4~6 tapels in the out whorl, foliate (leaf-like), green, ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 3~7 cm long, tapels in the inner whorl are filate or linear, in the same number as the tapels in the out whorl, yellow or yellowish green, 1~1.5 mm wide, about 1/3 length of the tepals in the out whorl or almost the same length; 8~10 stamens, arranged in 2 whorls, anther is 1.2~2 cm long, filaments are very short, only 1/3~1/4 length of the anther, septum grows out 0.5~2 mm beyond the anther; anther is subsphaeroidal, with edges, style is short, has 4~5 revolute branches.

 Capsularfruit is globular and valvular dehiscent at maturity; many seeds, with bright red juicy testa. Its flowering period is from May to July, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var.chinenisi Franch Hara.:growing plantsEcological environment: The plant grows in the shade of a forest on hillsides or mountain slopes, or beside a ravine, in the area at altitudes of 600 ~ 1,350 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, the southwest area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cold cool and shady damp environment, better choose a field with deep soil layers, loose and fertile, and humus-rich soil, or sandy loam for cultivation.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var.chinenisi Franch Hara.:drawing of plant and rhizome Characters of herbs: The herb is cone-like (conical-like), often curved, 3.7~10 cm long, and 1.3~3.0 cm in diameter, the top end and middle part are enlarged, and the end part is attenuate (gradually narrowing). The surface is pale yellowish-brown or yellowish-brown, with insequent nodes and joints, and internode length is 1.5~5 mm; the upper side has semicircular or elliptic sunken stem marks, 0.5~1.1 cm in diameter, slight alternate permutation; the lower side has sparse fibrous roots and few residual fibrous roots; the enlarged top end has sunken stem residues, some nodes and joints have visible scale leaves. The texture of the herb is firm and solid, easily broken, the fracture surface is flat and has mealiness (powdery), a few parts are corneous, the powdery part is gypseus, the corneous part is pale yellowish-brown, there are visible glossy spots of calcium oxalate raphides. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes bitter.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxification, detumescence (reduce swelling) and analgesic (relieve pain), cool the liver and calm the convulsion. It is indicated for malignant boils, swollen carbuncle, sore throat swelling pain, venomous snake bite, traumatic injury from fall, convulsions and hyperspasmia.

 Administration of Rhizoma Paridis (Zhònɡ Lóu): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Paridis (Zhònɡ Lóu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ②.Externally:prepare to paste and apply externally, for the treatment of swelling traumatic injury and poison.

(2).Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz.


 Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis Franch.Hand.-Mazz.:growing plants Botanical description: Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz is also known as Paris yunnanensis Franch. (P.yunnanensis Franch.), or Paris polyphylla Smith var.platypetala Franch., is commonly known as Kuān Bàn Zhònɡ Lóu or Kuò Bàn Zhònɡ Lóu (means wide lobe Polyphylla). The plant grows up to 35~100 cm tall, and are glabrous; the rhizome is hypertrophic, 2~3.5 cm in diameter, and nodes and joints are conspicuous. 6~10 leaves grow in a whorl; petioles are 5~20 mm long; leaf blades are lanceolate, ovate-oblong to obovate, 5~11 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide.

 Tapels in the out whorl are green, lanceolate, or ovate-oblong; tapels in the inner whorl are yellow, filate or linear, and slightly lanceolate, the part above the middle is 2~6 mm wide, about 1/2 length of the out whorl to almost the same length; 8~10 stamens, arranged in 2~3 whorls, anther is 1~1.5 cm long, filaments are shorter than anther, septum grows out 1~2 mm beyond the anther; the ovary is globular, style is thick and short, with 5~6 ramifications on the top end. Its flowering period is from June to July, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis Franch.Hand.-Mazz.:growing shurbEcological environment: The plant grows in forests or roadside, in areas at altitudes of 1,400~2,000~3,600 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the southwest area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cool, damp environment. Most of the plants grow in well-shaded, damp, boulevard fields and weedy gullies. The optimum temperature for the germination of the top bud is between 18-20 °C (Celsius, or 64.4 ~ 68 degrees Fahrenheit), and the seedlings can grow out when the temperature is above 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit). The above-ground plant could grow continuously at 16 ~ 20 °C (Celsius, or 60.8 ~ 68 degrees Fahrenheit), while the underground root grows at 14 ~ 18 °C (Celsius, or 57.2 ~ 64.4 degrees Fahrenheit). It is suitable for growth in shade fields of forests, in areas at altitudes of 2,000 ~ 3,000 meters, strong light will make the leaves wither, the optimal areas are at an altitude of 2,300 ~ 2,700 meters above sea level, with a cool climate and appropriate rainfall. It grows in slightly acid humus soil well, or in red loam with good permeability of water, and it is not suitable to grow in heavy and clayey soil which is easy of hardening and waterlogging.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is quasi-circular, often straight, 4.5~12 cm long, and 1.2~6.0 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-brown, few are taupe (dust color), nodes and joints are comparatively sparse; stem marks are semicircle or flat circular shape, arranged irregularly. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, not easy to break, the fracture surface has mealiness (powdery).
 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Zhong Lou:Paris Rhizome or Rhizoma Paridis.

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