Introduction of Zhong Lou:Paris Rhizome or Rhizoma Paridis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Paris Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinenisi (Franch) Hara., ②.Paris polyphylla Smith var.yunnanensis (Franch.)Hand.-Mazz., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of two plant species, the features of the herb Paris Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Paridis(Paris Rhizome).

Rhizoma Paridis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zhònɡ Lóu.
 English Name: Paris Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Paridis.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, bitter, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Paridis is the dried rhizome of Paris polyphylla Smith var.yunnanensis(Franch.)Hara(family Liliaceae), used for treating acute pyogenic inflammations, and also used as an anticonvulsive in the treatment of infantile convulsion. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Paridis, Paris Rhizome, Zhònɡ Lóu.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Paridis(Paris Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1). Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinenisi (Franch) Hara.,Or (2). Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.)Hand. -Mazz. They are plants of the Paris L. genus, Liliaceae family, Liliflorae order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinenisi (Franch) Hara.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var.chinenisi Franch Hara.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Huá Zhònɡ Lóu, Qī Yè Yī Zhī Huá(Seven-leaves One-Flower). Herbs perennial, ca. 50 cm tall. Rhizome brown, transverse and hypertrophic, up to 3 cm thick, surface rough with nodes, fibrous fibrous fibrous roots on nodes. Stem simple, erect, cylindrical, smooth glabrous, base often purplish red. Leaves 5~9, usually 7 pieces, round born at the top of the stem, strong as an umbrella, on which 1 flower, so-called "seven-leaf flower"; Petiole 1~3 cm long, leaf blade papery or membranous, narrowly ovate or oblanceolate, 7~9 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, apex acute, base cuneate. Summer yellow-green flowers, pedicels drawn from stem tips, unbranched, somewhat longer than leaves, flowers solitary terminal; Sepals 5~6, foliate, ovate-lanceolate; 5~6 petals, slender, sometimes slightly enlarged above, ca. 1.5 mm wide, usually shorter than calyx; Stamen 2 wheel, septum protruding part is narrower than anther, length 0.2~2 mm; Ovary ribbed, apical to style purple, remainder yellow-green; Capsule loculicidal. Horn-leaf flower: shaped like a Chinese horn-leaf flower, but the leaves short round or inverted lanceolate moment round, base round or rarely sharp; Petals filamentous, nearly apically tapering, equal to or longer than 2 times the calyx, ca. 1 mm wide.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var.chinenisi Franch Hara.:growing plantsEcological environment: The plant grows in the area at an altitude of 600~1,350 meters (2000) above sea level, in the shade of a forest or beside a ravine. It is a Yin prefer plant, which grows well in loose and fertile soil with a certain water retention capacity. The plant distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var.chinenisi Franch Hara.:drawing of plant and rhizome Characters of herbs: The herb is a nodular flat cylinder shape, slightly curved, 5~12 cm long and 1.0~4.5 cm in diameter. The surface is yellow-brown or gray-brown, and the part where the outer bark fall off is white; there are thick ring patterns with dense layer protrusions, with obvious nodules on one surface, there are oval concave stem marks on the nodules, and sparse or verrucous fibrous root marks on the other surface. There are residues with scaly leaves and stems at the top. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, the fracture surface is flat, white to light brown, powdery or keratode. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter and numbing.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxification, detumescence(reduce swelling) and analgesic(relieve pain), cool the liver and calm the convulsion. It is indicated for malignant boils, swollen carbuncle, sore throat swelling pain, venomous snake bite, traumatic injury from fall, convulsions and hyperspasmia.

 Administration of Rhizoma Paridis(Zhònɡ Lóu): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Paridis(Zhònɡ Lóu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply stick;②.Externally:prepare to paste and apply externally,for the treatment of swelling traumatic injury and poison.

(2).Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.)Hand.-Mazz.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis Franch.Hand.-Mazz.:growing plants Botanical description: It is commonly known as Kuān Bàn Zhònɡ Lóu, or Wide lobe Polyphylla. Plants 35~100 cm tall, glabrous; Rhizome thick, up to 1~2.5 cm in diameter, brown outside, densely growing many segments, and many fibrous roots. Stems usually purplish red, 1~1.5 cm in diameter (0.8-), with 1~3 pale dry membranous sheaths at base. Leaves 6~12, thickly papery, lanceolate, ovate-rectangular or obovate-lanceolate, petiole 0.5~2 cm long. Outer tepals lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 3~4.5 cm long, inner tepals 6~8, striate, 3-6 mm wide above middle, 1/2 or nearly as long as outer tepals; 8~12 stamens, anthers 1~1.5 cm long, filaments very short, medicine septum protrusion about 1~3 mm long; Ovary globose, style stubby, apex 5~10 branched. Capsule purple, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, 3~6 valves dehiscent. Seeds numerous, with a bright red mucous coat. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from September to October.

 Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis Franch.Hand.-Mazz.:growing shurbEcological environment: The plant grows in forests or roadside at an altitude of 1,400~2,000~3,600 meters. It prefers a cool, damp environment. Much of it grows in well-shaded, damp, tree-lined ground and weeds from raw gullies. The optimum temperature for the germination of the top bud of the broad petal double floor is between 18-20 ℃, and the seedlings can only emerge when the temperature is above 20℃. The above-ground plants need to continue to grow at 16~20 ℃, while the underground roots need to grow at 14~18 ℃. It is suitable for growth in the altitude of 2,000~3,000 meters under the shade of the forest, strong light will make the leaves wither, it is most suitable for the altitude of 2,300~2,700 meters, the climate is cool, the rainfall is an appropriate place to grow. It grows well in the slightly acid humus soil or red loam with good water permeability, and it is not suitable to grow in the soil with sticky weight and easy water accumulation and hardening. The plant distributes in the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, southwest area, and other areas of China.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.
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