Introduction of Bai Jiang:Patrinia Herb or Herba Patriniae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Patrinia, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev., ②.Patrinia villosa Juss., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Patrinia, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Patriniae(Patrinia).

dried herb pieces and segments of Herba Patriniae Pin Yin Name: Bài Jiànɡ, Bài Jiànɡ Cǎo.
 English Name: Patrinia, or Patrinia Herb, Dahurian Patrinia Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Patriniae.
 Property and flavor: cool, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Patriniae is the dried entire plant of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev., or Patrinia villosa Juss., used for clearing heat, counteracting toxins, evacuating pus, dispelling blood stasis and relieving pain in the treatment of lung abscess, acute appendicitis, boils, sores, ulcers, and postpartum abdominal pain. The herb is commonly known as Herba Patriniae, Patrinia, Bài Jiànɡ Cǎo.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Patriniae (Patrinia) as the dried entire plant of (1). Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev. (2). Patrinia villosa Juss. They are plants of the Patrinia genus, Valerianaceae family (valerian subfamily of the family Caprifoliaceae), Rubiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev.


 flowering plants of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev. grow in a field Botanical description: Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch is also known as Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev., it is commonly known as Yellow-flower Patrinia, or Huáng Huā Bài Jiànɡ, Huáng Huā Lóng Yá. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 70~130 cm tall. The underground rhizome is thin and long, decumbent or slanting sideways, have a peculiar effluvium. Stem is upright, yellow-green purplish, upper part is branched. Basal leaves are fascicular, with long petioles, leaves wither and fall off in the flowering phase; cauline leaves are opposite; petioles are 1~2 cm long, leaves on the upper part gradually turn sessile; leaf blades are in 2~3 pairs, and pinnately parted, 5~15 cm long, central lobes are biggest, elliptic or oval (egg-shaped), lateral lobes on two sides are narrowly elliptic to linear, the apex is acuminate, the base is cuneate, leaf margin is coarsely serrate, both surfaces are sparsely covered with coarse hairs or glabrous.

 flowering plants of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch with many yellow flowers Cymose panicles accumulated into sparse and big corymbals, apical or axillary. Peduncle is often covered with coarse hairs on both sides or only on one side, inflorescence base has 1 pair of linear involucre bracts, very small; flowers are about 3 mm in diameter; the calyx is short, 5 calyx teeth, inconspicuous; corolla is yellow, the upper part is 5-lobed, corolla tube is short, with white long hairs inside; 4 stamens, nearly equal length as the corolla; the ovary is inferior, 3-loculed, 1 cell is developed, stigma is capitate.

 Achenes are oblong oval, 3~4 mm long; the margin is slightly flat, extending from the back to both sides into narrow aliform (narrow wings). Its flowering period is from July to September, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 flowering plants of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.ex Trev. with yellow flowers and buds Ecological environment: The plant grows in bush edges on hillsides and mountain slopes, ditch, and valley, forest edges and grassland, or semi-humid grassland, in areas at altitudes of 700~1,600 meters above sea level. The plant is distributed in the northern, eastern, southern, and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Patrinia scabiosaefolia prefers a slightly humid environment and is tolerant of cold, general soil is suitable for its cultivation, but the more fertile sandy loam is better for cultivation.

 dried herb pieces of Herba Patriniae in a pile Characters of herbs: The herb is known as Herba Patriniae Scabiosaefoliae or Yellowflower Patrinia Herb. The whole herb is often folded into bundles. The stem is cylindrical, curved, 5~15 cm long, and 2~5 mm in diameter, and the root top is up to 9 mm in diameter; there is cork bark on the surface, easy to fall off, purple-brown or dark-brown, with loose or dense nodes, there are bud marks and root marks on nodes; the fracture surface is fibrous, with a brown duramen (wood core) in the center. The root is long conical or long cylindrical, 10 cm long, and 1~4 mm in diameter; there are longitudinal striations on the surface, and the fracture surface is yellowish-white. The herb stem is cylindrical, 2~8 mm in diameter; the surface is yellowish-green or brown, with longitudinal edges and fine striation, and inversed coarse hair. The cauline leaves are mostly curled or broken, and both surfaces are sparsely covered with white hairs, intact leaves are pinnately parted or deeply divided, with 5~11 lobes, and edges are serrate; the cauline leaves on the upper stem are smaller, often 3-lobed. There are inflorescences or infructescences on some branch tips, small flowers are yellow. The achenes are oblong oval, without membranous aliform bracts. The herb has a peculiar odor, and it tastes slightly bitter.

(2).Patrinia villosa Juss.


 flowering plants of Patrinia villosa Juss with green leaves and small whitish flowers Botanical description: Patrinia villosa Juss is also known as Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss., or Valeriana villosa Thunb., it is commonly known as White-flower Patrinia, or Bái Huā Bài Jiànɡ. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 50~100 cm tall; the rhizome has a special odious smell; the stem is covered with coarse white hairs, and later hairs gradually fall off. Basal leaves are fascicular or clustered; petiole is slightly longer than leaf blade; leaf blade is broadly ovate or orbicular, leaf margin is coarsely serrate; cauline leaves are opposite; petioles are 1~3 cm long, leaves on upper part gradually turn sessile, leaf blades are oval (egg-shaped), rhomboid ovate or narrowly elliptic, 4~11 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is acuminate or narrow acuminate, the base is cuneate and decurrent, leaves are in 2 pairs and pinnately lobed, both surfaces are sparsely covered with coarse appressed hairs or glabrate.

 Cymose panicles accumulated into sparse and big corymbals; involucral bracts are ovate-lanceolate; the calyx is small, with 5 calyx teeth, inconspicuous; corolla is white, about 5 mm in diameter, corolla tube is short, end tip is 5-lobed; 4 stamens, stretching out; the ovary is inferior, style is slightly shorter than the stamen.

 Achenes are obovate, persistent bracts adnate, bracts are orbicular, and membraneous, reticulated veins are conspicuous.

 flowering plant of Patrinia villosa Juss with small whitish flowers Ecological environment: The plant grows in the area at altitudes of 50~2000 meters above sea level, in grassland on barren hills and desolate mountains, forest edges and bushes. In China, it is mainly distributed in the northern, eastern, southern, and southwest areas.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Patrinia villosa Juss prefers a slightly humid environment and is tolerant of cold, general soil is suitable for its cultivation, but the more fertile sandy loam is better for cultivation.

 dried herb segments and flowers of Herba Patriniae Characters of herbs: The herb is known as Herba Patriniae Villosae or Whiteflower Patrinia Herb. The rhizome is short, about 10 cm long, some have thin and long stolons, the fracture surface has no brown duramen (wood core); the stem is smooth, up to 1.1 cm in diameter, the intact leaves are oval (egg-shaped) or oblong oval, not split or with 1 pair of lobules at the base; flowers are white, bracts are membranous, most bracts have 2 main veins.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on the influenza virus; ②.sedative effect; ③.promote the regeneration of liver cells and prevent the degeneration of liver cells; ④.anti-cancer effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and detoxification, expelling phlegm and discharging pus, activate blood circulation and discharging pus. It is indicated for acute appendicitis, abscess of the lung, carbuncle swelling, dysentery, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, postpartum blood stasis abdominal pain, carbuncle malignant boil, red eyes swelling pain, carbuncle swelling, and scabies.

 Administration of Herba Patriniae (Bài Jiànɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Patriniae (Bài Jiànɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~15 grams,water decoction.Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams),fresh herb 2~4 liang (about 60~120 grams).Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams,Externally:fresh herb proper amount,mashed and apply stick at affected area.

 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Jiang:Patrinia Herb or Herba Patriniae.

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