Introduction of Bai Jiang:Patrinia Herb or Herba Patriniae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins:an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

 
Herba Patriniae(Patrinia).

Herba Patriniae:dried herb Pin Yin Name: Bài Jiànɡ, Bài Jiànɡ Cǎo.
 English Name: Patrinia, or Whiteflower Patrinia Herb, Dahurian Patrinia Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Patriniae.
 Property and flavor: cool, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Patriniae is the dried entire plant of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. Or Patrinia villosa Juss.(family Valerianaceae), used for clearing heat, counteracting toxins, evacuating pus, dispelling blood stasis and relieving pain in the treatment of lung abscess, acute appendicitis, boils, sores, ulcers, and postpartum abdominal pain. The herb is commonly known as Herba Patriniae, Patrinia, Bài Jiànɡ Cǎo.

 Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.:flowers Botanical source: Common herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Herba Patriniae(Patrinia) as the dried entire plant of (1). Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. (2). Patrinia villosa Juss. They are plants of the Patrinia genus, Valerianaceae family, Rubiales order plant. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.


 Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yellow-flower Patrinia, Huáng Huā Bài Jiànɡ. Herbs perennial, 50~130 cm tall. Roots and stems have a peculiar odor. Stem erect, yellow-green purplish, upper branched. Basal leaves fasciculate, ovate-lanceolate, not divided or pinnate, stipitate. Cauline leaves opposite, shortly sessile or subsessile, leaf blade pinnate deeply lobed, central lobes larger, lanceolate, apex acuminate, base cuneate, margin with large serrate irregularly. Cymes corymbose, terminal or axillary. Inflorescence base bracts 1 pair, striate. Calyx short, 5 teeth inconspicuous; Corolla tube short yellow, upper 5-lobed, endophytic white long hair; 4 stamens, ovary inferior, stigma capitate. Achene, elliptic, trigonal. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from September to October.

 Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch.:flowers and buds Ecological environment: The plant is suitable to be cultivated in a moist environment and cold tolerance, but it is better to plant it in fertile sandy soil. The plant grows in areas at an altitude of 700~1,600 meters above sea level, on the mountain slope, wasteland. The plant distributes in the Guizhou province of China.

 Growth characteristics: The Patrinia scabiosaefolia prefers a slightly humid environment, resistance to sub cold, general soil is suitable for cultivation, but the more fertile and active sand holding loam is better.

 Herba Patriniae:yellow flower herb Characters of herbs: The whole herb often folds into a bundle. The stem is cylindrical, curved, 5~15 cm long, 2~5 mm in diameter, up to 9 mm thick at the apex; There is cork on the surface, easy to fall off, purple-brown or dark brown, nodal density varies, there is nodal bud marks and root marks; The fracture surface is fibrous, with a brown "wood core" in the center. The root is long conical or long cylindrical, up to 10 cm long, 1-4 mm in diameter; There are longitudinal lines on the surface, and the fracture surface is yellow and white. The stem is cylindrical, 2~8 mm in diameter; The surface is yellow-green or common brown, longitudinally ribbed and finely textured, with backward coarse hairs. Cauline leaves much curled or broken, sparsely white hairs grow on both sides, complete with many pinnately lobed or completely lobed, 5~11 lobes, the margin is serrate; The upper leaves of the stem are small, often 3-lobed. Inflorescence grows on branch tips; The florets are yellow. Achene is long elliptic, membranous winglike bracts. The smell is specific and the taste is slightly bitter.

(2).Patrinia villosa Juss.


 Patrinia villosa Juss.:flowering plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as White-flower Patrinia, Bái Huā Bài Jiànɡ. Herbs perennial, 50~120 cm tall; Underground rhizome long and crosswalk, occasionally on the surface of prostrate growth; Stem densely white appressed coarsely hairy or longitudinally appressed shortly appressed laterally joined to two petioles, sometimes glabrous. Basal leaves clustered, leaf blade ovate, broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate. Inflorescences of terminal panicles or cymes, branches to 5-6, peduncle densely scabrous with long or only 2 rows of scabrous hairs. Achene obovate, adnate with persistently enlarged bracts. It is flowering from August to October, fruiting from September to November.

 Patrinia villosa Juss.:flowers Ecological environment: The plant grows in the area at an altitude of 50~400~1500~2000 meters above sea level, in mountain forests, forest margins or thickets, grass. In China, it mainly distributes in the Yangtze River area and the Zhujiang river area, Taiwan.

 Growth characteristics: The Patrinia villosa Juss prefers a slightly humid environment, resistance to sub cold, general soil is suitable for cultivation, but the more fertile and active sand holding loam is better.

 Herba Patriniae:white flower herb Characters of herbs: The herb rhizome is short, 10 cm long, some with slender stolons, the fracture surface has no brown "wood core"; The stems are smooth, up to 1.1 cm in diameter, intact leaves are ovate or oblong, uncleaved or with a pair of lobules at the base, the flowers are white, the bracts are membranous, many with 2 main veins.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on the influenza virus; ②.sedative effect; ③.promote the regeneration of liver cells and prevent the degeneration of liver cells; ④.anti-cancer effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and detoxification, expelling phlegm and discharging pus, activate blood circulation and discharging pus. It is indicated for acute appendicitis, abscess of the lung, carbuncle swelling, dysentery, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, postpartum blood stasis abdominal pain, carbuncle malignant boil, red eyes swelling pain, carbuncle swelling, and scabies.

 Administration of Herba Patriniae(Bài Jiànɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Patriniae(Bài Jiànɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:6~15 grams,water decoction.Externally:proper amount(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams),fresh herb 2~4 liang(about 60~120 grams).Externally:mashed and apply stick(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams,Externally:fresh herb proper amount,mashed and apply stick at affected area(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bai Jiang:Patrinia Herb or Herba Patriniae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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