Introduction of Zhi Zi:Cape-jasmine Fruit or Fructus Gardeniae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Cape-jasmine Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Cape-jasmine Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Fructus Gardeniae(Cape-jasmine Fruit).
Pin Yin Name: Zhī Zi.
English Name: Cape-jasmine Fruit.
Latin Name: Fructus Gardeniae.
Property and flavor: cold, slightly sour, bitter.
Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Gardeniae is the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, used (1).to purge fire and calm the mind in cases of fever with fidgetiness and insomnia, and (2).to clear damp-heat from the liver and gallbladder in cases of acute icteric hepatitis, and to cool blood and counteract toxins in cases of bleeding, sores and ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Gardeniae, Cape-jasmine Fruit, Zhī Zi.
Botanical source: The herb Fructus Gardeniae (Cape-jasmine Fruit) is the dried fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., it is a plant of the Gardenia Genus, the Rubiaceae family (madder family) of the Gentianales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.
Botanical description: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., is a plant of the Rubiaceae family (madder family) and Gardenia genus, it is commonly known as Cape Jasmine, or Zhi Zi. An evergreen shrub, the plant grows up to 1~2 meters tall; branchlets are green, hairy when young, and turn glabrate later. Simple leaves are opposite, rarely 3 leaves grow in a whorl, the petiole is short, 0.2~1 cm long; 2 stipules, membranous, grow on the inside of the petiole; the leaf blade is coriaceous, elliptic, broadly oblanceolate, or obovate, 6~14 cm long, 2~7 cm wide, the apex is sharp pointed or acuminate, the base is cuneate, entire-edge, the upper surface is lucidus, pubescence only grow in axillaries on the under surface; upper surface is light green, undersurface is darker; lateral veins are plumelike, in 8~15 pairs.
Flowers are big, extremely fragrant, terminal or axillary, with short pedicel; the calyx is green, 2~3 cm long, 5~7 sepals (calyx lobes), linear-lanceolate, usually slightly longer than calyx tube; corolla is salverform, white, turns creamy yellow (milky yellow) later, base connate to tube-shape, upper part is 6~7-lobed, in rolling order, the apex is round; stamens are in the same number as corolla lobes, inserted on corolla throat, filaments are extremely short, anthers are linear, longitudinal split, 2-loculed; 1 pistil, styles are thick, ca. 4.5 cm, stigmas are spindle-shaped, extending, 1~1.5 cm long, 3~7 mm wide; the ovary is inferior, 1-loculed, the ovary is approximately 3 mm in diameter, yellow, smooth.
Fruit is deep yellow, ovate or oblong oval, 2~4 cm long, with 5~9 aliform longitudinal ridges, apex has striped persistent calyx. Seeds are many, canary-yellow (vivid yellow or bright yellow), and oblate elliptic. Its flowering period is from May to July, the fruiting period is from August to November.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in the hills and mountainous regions, or in bushes on hillsides and mountain slopes. It is mainly distributed in the middle south, southwest, middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, southeast areas, and Taiwan, in China.
Growth characteristics: Gardenia jasminoides Ellis prefers a warm and humid climate, it is tolerant to drought, and avoid water logging. Better to choose a field with deep soil layers, loose and fertile, alluvial soil, gravel soil, and other acid soils with good drainage and well aerated, for cultivation, should not choose saline-alkali soil. The plants need shade at the seedling stage and grow well with a shade level of 30%, but when they enter the fruiting stage, they prefer sufficient light.
Characters of herbs: The fruit is obovate, elliptic, or oblong oval, 1.4~3.5 cm long, and 0.8~1.8 cm in diameter. The surface is reddish brown or reddish yellow, slightly luster, with 6~8 aliform longitudinal ridges, 1 longitudinal vein between two aliform ridges, with dull yellow-green residual persistent calyx at the apex, 6~8 long lobes at the apex, lobes are 1~2.5 cm long, and 2~3 mm wide, mostly are broken, the fruit base shrinks into a fruit stalk, and the end has a circular fruit stalk mark. The pericarp (fruit peel) is thin and crisp, and the inner surface is canary-yellow, or reddish yellow. Shiny, there are 2-3 raised pseudoseptum. The fracture surface is bright yellow, with many seeds, oblate oval or oblate rectangular-circular, gathered into spherical lumps, brownish red, with thin and dense concave spots on the surface; the endosperm is keratose, the embryo is long, with 2 cordate cotyledons. The herb has a slight smell, it tastes slightly sour and bitter.
The herb of better grade has a thin pericarp (fruit peel), full grains, and reddish yellow.
Pharmacological actions: ①.choleretic effect; ②.Sedative and antihypertensive effects; ③.Antimicrobial effect: Gardenia water saps have an inhibitory effect on a variety of fungi in vivo, such as achorion schoenleinii, Epidermophyton inguinale, Epidermophyton rubrum, and so on. Its water decoction of 15 mg/ml can kill leptospirosis; In vitro, Gardenia Fructus decoction could stop the activity of Schistosoma, the decoction has no inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria.
Medicinal efficacy: Purge fire and eliminate vexation, clear heat, clear heat and diuretic, clear heat and remove dampness through diuresis, cool blood, detoxification. It is indicated for pyrexia and vexed, fever vexed and insomnia, jaundice, jaundice and red urine, dampness-heat jaundice, gonorrhea, stranguria, consumptive thirst, bloody stranguria with pain, blood heat and vomiting blood, nosebleed, dysentery with bloody stool, hematuria (bloody urine), red eyes and swelling pain, red eyes, red eyes of liver fire, sore throat, headache, sores of mouth and tongue, fire and toxic heat ulcers, pyretix carbuncles and ulcer, swollen poison; External treatment contusion pain, etc.
Administration of Fructus Gardeniae (Zhī Zi):
Administration Guide of Fructus Gardeniae (Zhī Zi)
①.Internally:6~9 grams.Externally:raw herb proper amount, prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick.root 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams); ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~4 qian (about 6~12 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply, or apply stick.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Fructus Gardeniae should avoid using in conditions loose stool and diarrhea due to spleen deficiency.
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1.Introduction of Zhi Zi:Cape-jasmine Fruit or Fructus Gardeniae.