Introduction of Luo Bu Ma Ye:Dogbane Leaf or Folium Apocyni Veniti.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Dogbane Leaf, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Apocynum venetum L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Dogbane Leaf, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Folium Apocyni Veniti(Dogbane Leaf).

dried herb and herb tea of Dogbane Leaf Pin Yin Name: Luó Bù Má Yè.
 English Name: Dogbane Leaf.
 Latin Name: Folium Apocyni Veniti.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Folium Apocyni Veniti is the dried leaf of red dogbane, Apocynum venetum L., used for suppressing hyperactive liver yang, clearing heat and inducing diuresis. The herb is commonly known as Folium Apocyni Veneti, Dogbane Leaf, or Luó Bù Má Yè.

 Botanical source: The herb Folium Apocyni Veniti (Dogbane Leaf) is the dried leaf of Apocynum venetum L., it is a plant of the Apocynum. Genus, the Apocynaceae family (dogbane family) of the Gentianales order.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Folium Apocyni Veniti (Dogbane Leaf) as the dried leaf of (1). Apocynum venetum L. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Apocynum venetum L.

 flowering plants of Apocynum venetum L.,with small pink flowers Botanical description: Apocynum venetum L is also known as Trachomitum venetum (L.) Woodson or Apocynum lancifolicum Russan. The plant is commonly known as Red Dogbane, or Luo Bu Ma, Zé Qī, Qī Jīng. An upright semishrub, the plant grows up to 1.5~3 meters tall. The whole plant has latex; branches are cylinder, smooth and glabrous, violet red (purplish red), or light red. Leaves are opposite; petioles are 3~6 mm long; leaf blades are elliptic-lanceolate to ovoid-oblong, 1~5 cm long, 0.5~1.5 cm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed to blunt, the leaf edge has thin dentates, both surfaces are glabrous.

 Coniform cyme has one to several branches, usually is terminal, sometimes is axillary; flower bracts are membraneous, lanceolate, about 4 mm long, 1 mm wide; 5 flowers; calyx lobes are lanceolate or ovoid-lanceolate, both surfaces have soft hairs; corolla tube is campanulate (bell-shaped), violet red (purplish red) or pink, 6~8 mm long, 2~3 mm wide, corolla lobes are ovate-oblong, almost equal length as corolla tube; stamens insert on the base of corolla tube, anther is arrow-shaped, hides in the corolla throat, the back of anther is raised, the abdomen of anther adhere to the base of style, filaments are short; stamens are 2~2.5 mm long, style is short, the upper part is enlarged, the lower part is narrowing, stigma base is disc-shape, the apex is 2-lobed; the ovary is composed of 2 separate carpels; the floral disc is circinal (ring-shaped), succulent, insert on the receptacle.

 2 follicles, parallel or intersect, pendulous, 8~20 cm long, 2~3 mm in diameter. Many seeds, ovoid-oblong, yellow-brown, 2~3 mm long, 0.5~0.7 mm in diameter, apex has a cluster of white sericeous seed hairs, about 1.5~2.5 cm long. Its flowering period is from April to September, and the fruiting period is from July to December.

 dried herbal tea of Dogbane Leaf in a pile Ecological environment: The plant grows in salty land, the edge of a desert, the banks of rivers, fluvial plains, near lakes, Gobi Desert, etc. The plant is distributed in the northern, northwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: Apocynum venetum L does not have a strict requirement in the environment, it is distributed in salty land, and sandy wasteland, tolerant to cold, drought, alkali, and wind, and suitable for many climates and soil, it can grow well even in the Turpan basin where it is often drought in summer, and temperature is over 50 °C (Celsius, or 122 degrees Fahrenheit).

 Characters of herbs: The herb leaves are mostly wrinkled and curled, and some are broken, after flattened out, the intact leaves are elliptic-lanceolate or ovoid-lanceolate, 2~5 cm long, and 0.5~2 cm wide, pale green (pea green) or celadon (grayish green), the apex is blunt, with awnlet tip, the base is blunt or cuneate (wedge-shaped), fine serrated on the edge, often retroflexed, both surfaces are glabrous and leaf veins protruding on the undersurface; petioles are slender, about 4 mm long. The texture of the herb is fragile. The herb has a slight smell, and it tastes mild. The herb of a better grade is intact and green.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antihypertensive effect; ②.Cardiac strengthening effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Calm the liver and relieve uneasiness of mind, clear heat and alleviate water retention, reduce blood pressure, strengthen heart, diuretic. It is indicated for liver-Yang dizziness, palpitation, insomnia, edema and lack of urine, hypertension, neurasthenia, nephritis edema.

 Administration of Folium Apocyni Veniti (Luó Bù Má Yè): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Folium Apocyni Veniti (Luó Bù Má Yè)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally: water decoction, 3~10 grams, or brewing as tea and drink.




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