Introduction of Wu Zhu Yu:Evodia Fruit or Fructus Evodiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Evodia Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., ②.Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.officinalis (Dode) Huang., ③.Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.bodinieri (Dode) Huang., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Evodia Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Evodiae(Evodia Fruit).

Evodia Fruit Pin Yin Name: Wú Zhū Yú.
 English Name: Evodia Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Evodiae.
 Property and flavor: hot, pungent, bitter, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Evodiae is the dried nearly mature fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.officinalis (Dode) Huang. or Evodia rutaecarpa var.bodinieri(Dode)Huang, used to warm the stomach and relieve pain in the cases of gastralgia, abdominal pain, acid regurgitation and vomiting. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Evodiae, Evodia Fruit, Wú Zhū Yú.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Evodiae(Evodia Fruit) as the dried nearly mature fruit of (1). Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., (2). Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.officinalis (Dode) Huang., or (3). Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.bodinieri (Dode) Huang. They are plants of the Euodia(Tetradium) genus, the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family), Sapindales order. These 3 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.


 Evodia rutaecarpa Juss.Benth.:fruiting tree Botanical description: Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth is a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) and Tetradium genus, it is commonly known as Evodia rutaecarpa, Tetradium ruticarpum, or Wu Zhu Yu. Evergreen shrubs or small trees, the tree grows up to 3~10 meters. The bark is bluish gray-brown; young shoots are puce (purple brown), and have fine and small round lenticels; young branches and rachides are all covered with rust-colored fluff. Imparipinnate compound leaves are opposite, 20~40 cm long with petiole; petioles are 4~8 cm long, petiolules are 2~5 mm long; 5~9 lobules (leaflets), elliptic to oval (egg-shaped), 5.5~15 cm long, 3~7 cm wide, the apex is suddenly narrowing into a short point, the base is cuneate to wide cuneate or circular, entire or has inconspicuous crenature, lateral veins are inconspicuous, both surfaces are covered with flavotestaceous (fawn colour) pilose, especially many on veins, has obvious oil spots, thick chartaceous (papery) or chartaceous.

 The small tree is dioecious, definite raceme (racemose cyme), apical; rachides (floral axis) are thick and strong, densely covered with tawny (cinnamomeous, or yellow brown) pilose, the base of rachides has 2 foliolose narrow opposite bracts; 5 sepals (calyx lobes), broad-ovate, about 1~2 mm long, pubescent; 5 flower petals, white, oblong, 4~6 mm long; the male flower has 5 stamens, insert on tiny floral disc (flower disc), anther is basifixed, elliptic, filaments are thick and short, piliferous, the apex of the degenerate ovary is 4~5 lobed; petals of the female flower are bigger than petals of male flower, and staminode is scaly, the ovary is superior, oblong, 5 carpels, broadened to oblate after flowering, has thick and big glandular dots, style is thick and short, the apex of stigma is 4~5 lobed.

 The fruit is oblate, cracks into 5 fruit valves when it is mature, follicle-like, prunus (violet red), the surface has thick and big oily glandular spots, and every mericarp has 1 seed, which is black and glossy. Its flowering period is from June to August, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in open forests or open spaces at the forest edge, in areas at low elevation facing the sun. The plant is distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and the northwest and southwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Evodia rutaecarpa prefers a warm and moist climate and is not tolerant of coldness and dryness. It is suitable to choose a field with sufficient sunshine, deep soil layers, fertile and loose, sandy loam, or humus loam with good drainage for cultivation; Low-lying and water-logging land is not suitable for cultivation.

 Evodia Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The fruit is near-spherical (subglobular) or slightly pentagonal oblate, 2~5 mm in diameter. The surface is dark greenish yellow to brown, coarse and rough, with many punctate protrusions or concave oil spots. The top has a pentagram-shaped crack, and there are calyx and fruit stalks at the base, covered with yellow fluff. The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, and there are 5 ovary loculi in the cross-section, there is a pale yellow seed in each loculus. The herb has a strong aromatic fragrance; it tastes spicy and bitter. The herb of a better grade has full grains, is green, and has a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anthelmintic action on porcine ascaris; ②.inhibitory effect on dermatophytes such as Vibrio cholerae, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Odouin Bacillus spp; ③.stimulate the central nervous system, and can cause visual impairment, illusion and so on; ④.analgesia; ⑤.increase body temperature; ⑥.affect breathing and blood pressure, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Disperse cold and relieve pain, warm the middle (warm the spleen and stomach), regulate Qi, soothing the liver and descending Qi, calm the adverse-rising energy and stop vomiting, eliminating dampness, supporting Yang and stop diarrhea. It is indicated for jueyin headache, cold hernia and abdominal pain, cold wet beriberi, cold syndrome of the spleen and stomach of deficiency type, vomiting and diarrhea, vomiting and acid swallowing, dysmenorrhea(abdominal pain during menstruation), epigastric distension pain, cold dampness and diarrhea, morning diarrhea, hypertension, externally for the treatment of mouth sores, beriberi, swollen and painful beriberi, colic, hernia, mouth sore and ulcer, toothache, eczema, impetigo (yellow fluid ulcers), etc.

 Administration of Fructus Evodiae (Wú Zhū Yú): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Evodiae (Wú Zhū Yú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:1.5~4.5 grams. Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~2 qian (about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:steam and iron, prepare to finely ground herb powder, or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~5 grams, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, or wash with water decoction.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Fructus Evodiae should not be combined with Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Chalk, Fluoritum, etc.

(2).Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.officinalis (Dode) Huang.


 Evodia rutaecarpa Juss.Benth.var.officinalis Dode Huang.:stems and leaves Botanical description: Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.officinalis (Dode) Huang is a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) and Tetradium genus, it is commonly known as Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.officinalis (Dode) Huang., or Shí Hǔ (means stone tiger). This varietas is very similar to the Evodia rutaecarpa. The differences are: it has a special irritating odor. 3~11 lobules (leaflets), leaves are relatively narrow, oblong to narrow-lanceolate, the apex is acuminate or long acuminate, each lobule is separated by relatively small leaf spacing, lateral veins are obvious, entire, both surfaces are densely pilose, most densely on veins, oily glands are thick and big. Rachides (floral axis) are often covered with colorless or pale yellow pilose. Mature fruit spikes are less dense than Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. Seeds are blue-blackish. Its flowering period is from July to August, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in the grass on hillsides and mountain slopes. It is distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang River area, and the southwest areas of China.

(3).Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.bodinieri (Dode) Huang.


 Evodia rutaecarpa Juss.Benth.var.bodinieri Dode Huang.:fruiting tree Botanical description: Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.var.bodinieri (Dode) Huang is a plant of the Rutaceae family (rue, spurge olive family) and Tetradium genus, it is commonly known as piliferous Evodia, Máo Mài Wú Zhū Yú or Shū Máo Wú Zhū Yú. This varietas is very similar to the Evodia rutaecarpa. The differences are: Branchlets are covered with a yellow rust color or silky sparse pilose. Rachides (floral axis) are villous; 5~11 lobules (leaflets), leaf shapes change greatly, oblong, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, the mid-veins on the upper surface are slightly covered with sparse pubescence, veins on the undersurface are pubescent, lateral veins are clear, oily glandular spots are small. Its flowering period is from July to August, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on the roadsides around villages, and in the grass on hillsides or mountain slopes. The plant is distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and southwest areas of China.
 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Wu Zhu Yu:Evodia Fruit or Fructus Evodiae.

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