Introduction of Bi Ba:Long Pepper or Fructus Piperis Longi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Long Pepper, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Piper longum L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Long Pepper, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Piperis Longi(Long Pepper).

Fructus Piperis Longi Pin Yin Name: Bì Bá.
 English Name: Long Pepper.
 Latin Name: Fructus Piperis Longi.
 Property and flavor: hot, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Piperis Longi is the dried nearly ripe or ripe fruit-spike of Piper longum L.(family Piperaceae), used to warm the stomach for the treatment of cold and pain in the stomach. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Piperis Longi, Long Pepper, or Bì Bá.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Piperis Longi(Long Pepper) as the dried nearly ripe or ripe fruit-spike of (1). Piper longum L. It is a plant of the Piper L. genus, the Piperaceae family, Piperales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Piper longum L.

 Piper longum L.:drawing of plant Botanical description: It is commonly known as Bì Bá. Climbing vine, up to 8 meters long, finely powdery pubescent when young, branches longitudinally ribbed and grooved, with slightly enlarged nodes. Thickness of paper, with glandular dots, the lower the ovoid, upward gradually for the oval oblong, 6~12 cm long, 4~12 cm wide, apex abruptly short acuminate to acuminate, base broadly cordate, have two ears, two sides equal along very fine powdery pubescent on veins, especially on the back, 7 veins, base, most within 1 up to a few of the top of the blade; Petiole unequal in length, 9~10 cm in the lower part, 1~2 cm in the middle, sometimes nearly sessile and enveloping, all covered with very fine powdery pubescence. Flowers unisexual, dioecious, spikes on top, opposite leaves. Male inflorescence 4~5 cm long, ca. 3 mm in diameter; Peduncle 2~3 cm long, with very fine powdery pubescence; Bracts suborbicular, shield-shaped; 2 stamens, anthers elliptic, filaments very short; Female inflorescence 1.5~2.5 cm long, 4~5 mm thick, prolonged in fruit; Peduncle 1.5~2.9 cm long, puberulent; Ovary ovate, lower part united with inflorescence axis, 3 stigmas, apex acute. Berry globose, lower embedded in inflorescence axis, apex umbilically raised, glabrous, ca. 2 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from March to April, fruiting from July.

 Piper longum L.:flowering plant Ecological environment: The plant distributes in mengla, menglian, yingjiang, gengma, hekou, malipo; It grows at areas of altitude 580~700 meters forest, evergreen forest. In China, the plant distributes in the Zhujiang river area. It also distributes in other areas of Southeast Asia, Bhutan, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Java and Sumatra, Luzon Island of Philippine.

 Piper longum L.:fruiting plant Growth characteristics: The plant Piper longum is native to the tropical area, it prefers a high temperature and humid climate. The seedlings should be shaded moderately, otherwise, too much light will inhibit growth and affect yield. In the flowering and fruiting period, the plant needs full of light. Better choose a mountain, basin, ditch moist, loose, fertile soil for planting.

 Long Pepper:herb photo Characters of herbs: The clusters of the herb are cylindrical and slightly curved, which are made up of many small berries, with a length of 1.5~3.5 cm and a diameter of 0.3~0.5 cm. The surface is black-brown or brown, with small protrusions arranged in an oblique direction, and the base has residual or falling marks of fruit stalks; The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is irregular and granular. The berry is globular, about 1 mm in diameter. The herb has a special aromatic fragrance, tastes spicy and hot. The better grade of the herb is big and full, the texture is solid and firm, black-brown, with strong odor and taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ;①.anti-ulcer; ②.increase myocardial nutrient blood flow; ③.anti-myocardial ischemia effect; ④.essence oil has antiarrhythmic, anti hypoxia, antibacterial and antiviral effects; ⑤.oil has the effect of lowering blood lipid; ⑥.alkali has the effect of lowering blood pressure.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold, descending Qi and relieves the pain. It is indicated for cold pain in the epigastric abdomen, cold pain in the heart and abdomen, vomiting, vomiting and swallowing acid, diarrhea, borborygmus and dysentery, migraine, cold dysentery, yin hernia, headache, toothache, nasosinusitis(acute and chronic sinusitis), coronary heart disease and angina pectoris, externally treatment of toothache, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Piperis Longi(Bì Bá): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Piperis Longi(Bì Bá)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:1.5~3 grams.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder,fill in the carious tooth holes;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 qian(about 1.5~3 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder,fill in the carious tooth holes;③.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder,stuff the nose, or prepare to pill and fill in the carious tooth holes,or infusing in wine and smear at the affected area.

Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs.

 Introduction: Dispelling Internal Cold Herbs: also known as interior-warming herbs, an agent or substance herbs that warms the interior and expels internal cold, also known as cold-expelling herbs.
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