Introduction of Bi Ba:Long Pepper or Fructus Piperis Longi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Long Pepper, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Piper longum L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Long Pepper, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Piperis Longi(Long Pepper).

brownish dried fruits of Fructus Piperis Longi Pin Yin Name: Bì Bá.
 English Name: Long Pepper.
 Latin Name: Fructus Piperis Longi.
 Property and flavor: hot, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Piperis Longi is the dried nearly ripe or ripe fruit-spike of Piper longum L., used to warm the stomach for the treatment of cold and pain in the stomach. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Piperis Longi, Long Pepper, or Bì Bá.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Piperis Longi (Long Pepper) as the dried nearly ripe or ripe fruit-spike of (1). Piper longum L. It is a plant of the Piper L. genus, the Piperaceae family (pepper family), Piperales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Piper longum L.

 a colorful drawing of Piper longum L. with green leaves,stems,spikes and fruits Botanical description: Piper longum L is commonly known as Bì Bá. A perennial herbaceous-liana species. The rhizome is upright and many-branched. The lower part of the stem is procumbent, branches are decumbent and soft, it has vertical ridges and grooves, and the plant is covered with pulverulent pubescence when young. Leaves are alternate; cauline leaves on the lower part are ovoid and have longer petioles; leaves on the upper part gradually turn ovate-oblong, petioles are shorter, apical leaves are sessile, the base is amplexicaul (amplexicaular or stem-clasping), veins on the undersurface are pubescent; 7 palmate veins are basinerved.

 Flowers are unisexual, dioecious, achlamydeous (having no perianth); spikes and leaves are opposite; male inflorescences are 4~5 cm long, about 3 mm in diameter; peduncles are 2~3 cm long, pubescent; flower bracts are orbicular, peltate (scutiform); 2 stamens, filaments are very short; female inflorescences are 1.5~2.5 cm long, about 4 mm in diameter, elongated in fruiting phase; flower bracts are about 1 mm in diameter; the ovary is oval (egg-shaped), 3 styles.

 a flowering plant of Piper longum L. with several flower spikes The lower part of the berry, connate with the rachis (floral axis), apex has an umbiliform (umbilicular) convex, about 2 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is in spring, and the fruiting period is from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in open forests, in areas at altitudes of 580~700 meters. The plant is distributed in mengla, menglian, yingjiang, gengma, hekou, malipo, mainly in the east and southwest of Yunnan, it is also cultivated in the Zhujiang River area of China. It is also distributed in other areas of Southeast Asia, including Bhutan, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Java, Sumatra, and Luzon Island of the Philippines.

 fruiting tree of Piper longum L. with several fruits Growth characteristics: The plant Piper longum is native to tropical areas, it prefers a high temperature and humid climate. The seedlings should be shaded moderately, otherwise, too much light will inhibit their growth and affect the yield. During the flowering and fruiting period, the plant needs sufficient light. It is appropriate to choose a field in the mountain or basin, near the ditch, with moist, loose, and fertile loam soil for planting.

 dried fruits of Long Pepper Characters of herbs: The clusters of the herb (fruit ears) are cylindrical and slightly curved, which are made up of many small berries, 1.5~3.5 cm long, and 0.3~0.5 cm in diameter. The surface is black-brown or brown, with small protrusions arranged in an oblique direction, and the base has residual or shedding marks of carpopodiums (fruit stalks); the texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easy to break, the fracture surface is irregular and granular. The berry is spheric in shape (globular), and about 1 mm in diameter. The herb has a special aromatic fragrance and tastes spicy and hot. The herb of a better grade is big and full, the texture is solid and firm, black-brown, and it has a strong odor and taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ;①.anti-ulcer; ②.increase myocardial nutrient blood flow; ③.anti-myocardial ischemia effect; ④.essence oil has antiarrhythmic, anti hypoxia, antibacterial and antiviral effects; ⑤.oil has the effect of lowering blood lipid; ⑥.alkali has the effect of lowering blood pressure.

 Medicinal efficacy: Warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold, descending Qi and relieves the pain. It is indicated for cold pain in the epigastric abdomen, cold pain in the heart and abdomen, vomiting, vomiting and swallowing acid, diarrhea, borborygmus and dysentery, migraine, cold dysentery, yin hernia, headache, toothache, nasosinusitis (acute and chronic sinusitis), coronary heart disease and angina pectoris, externally treatment of toothache, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Piperis Longi (Bì Bá): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Piperis Longi (Bì Bá)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:1.5~3 grams.Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, fill in the carious tooth holes; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.5~1 qian (about 1.5~3 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder,fill in the carious tooth holes; ③.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder,stuff the nose, or prepare to pill and fill in the carious tooth holes,or infusing in wine and smear at the affected area.




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