Introduction of Bian Xu:Common Knotgrass Herb or Herba Polygoni Avicularis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Knotgrass Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Polygonum aviculare L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Common Knotgrass Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Common Knotgrass Herb).

dried herb segments of Herba Polygoni Avicularis Pin Yin Name: Biān Xù.
 English Name: Common Knotgrass Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Polygoni Avicularis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Polygoni Avicularis is the dried aerial part of Polygonum aviculare L., used (1).to promote diuresis and eliminate damp-heat in cases of stranguria with turbid urine and morbid leukorrhea, and (2).to dispel wind-damp in cases of arthralgia. The herb is commonly known as Herba Polygoni Avicularis, Common Knotgrass Herb, Biān Xù.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Polygoni Avicularis (Common Knotgrass Herb) as the dried aerial part or whole herb of the species (1). Polygonum aviculare L. It is a plant of the Polygonum L. genus, the Polygonaceae family (smartweed family) of the Polygonales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Polygonum aviculare L.

 a colorful drawing of Polygonum aviculare L.,root,stems and green leaves,flowers Botanical description: Polygonum aviculare L is commonly known as Biān Xù. Annual or perennial herb, the plant grows to 10~50 cm high. The plant has white pruina. Stems are decumbent, ascending, or upright, base is ramified (branched), green, has conspicuous grooves, and glabrous, base is terete (cylindrical), young branches have edges and corners. Simple leaves are alternate, subsessile; ocrea (leaf sheath of stipule) is amplexicaular (amplexicaul), membraneous; leaf blade is narrowly oblong oval or lanceolate, 1~5 cm long, 0.5~1 cm wide, the apex is blunt or sharp-pointed, the base is cuneate (wedge-shaped), both surfaces are glabrous, lateral veins are conspicuous.

 plants of Polygonum aviculare L. with green leaves grow in field Flowers are small, solitary, or often several flowers cluster and grow in leaf axils; pedicels (flower stalks) are short, tip end has nodes (articulated); perianth is green, 5 lobed, lobes are elliptic, the edge is white or faint red (rosiness), imbricated and wrapped the fruit after fruiting; 8 stamens, filaments are short.

 Achenes are triangular-ovate, brownish-black to black, 3-ribbed, glabrous, 2.5~3 mm long, subequal or slightly longer than persistent perianth, has inconspicuous fine lines and spots, and lusterless. Its flowering period is from April to August, the fruiting period is from June to September.

 a plant of Polygonum aviculare L with small flowers grow in field Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides and mountain slopes, fields, roadsides, wastelands, riversides, etc. It is widely distributed in the north temperate zone, it is distributed throughout China, and is produced in most areas of the country.

 flowering plants of Polygonum aviculare L with red flowers grow in a cluster Growth characteristics: The plant Polygonum aviculare has strong adaptability to climate, it can grow in cold mountain areas or warm flat dams. The plant grows in the wetland of farmland and gully areas at an elevation of 10~4,200 meters above sea level. It prefers cold, humid climate conditions, it is tolerant to heat and drought. The seeds germinated at above 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), and the plants grow well at 15~27 °C (Celsius, or 59~80.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Its achene resistance to cold is extremely strong, and can pass winter safely at -40 °C (Celsius, or -40 degrees Fahrenheit) low temperature. It has good adaptability to the soil, can grow well in general, it can even grow in saline sand wasteland rich in organic matter, and fertile sandy loam. It is appropriate to choose sandy loam soil with good drainage for cultivation.

 dried herb segments and pieces of Common Knotgrass Herb are piled together Characters of herbs: The stem is cylindrical and slightly flat, has branches, 10~40 cm long, and 1.0~3 mm in diameter. The surface is celadon (grayish-green) or red-brown, and has fine, dense, and slightly raised longitudinal lines; The nodes are slightly enlarged, has light brown membranous ocrea (leaf sheath of stipule), and internode lengths are different. The texture of the herb is hard and easy to break, the pith of the fracture surface is white. Leaves are alternate, mostly falling off or wizzled and broken. After flattening, the intact leaves are oblong oval or lanceolate, l~4 cm long, and about 5 mm wide, entire, celadon (sage green) or brownish-green. Sometimes small achenes with persistent perianth are visible, the achenes are dark brown (black brown), and ovate-trigonous. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is tender, leafy (foliose), and grayish-green.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.diuretic effects; ②.antibacterial effect:inhibitory effect on Shigeila flexneri and Sonne bacillus, the decoction has an inhibitory effect on Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Bacillus piliformis, inhibitory effect on staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and dermatophytes. ③.Hypotensive effects; ④.Effect on uterine and hemostatic effects; ⑤.Other effects: enhance the amplitude of respiratory movement and lung ventilation, mild astringent effect, can be used as a medicine for trauma.

 Medicinal efficacy: Prompt diuresis and treating stranguria, clear heat, kill parasites, relieve itching. It is indicated for stranguria, pyretic stranguria of the urinary bladder, oliguria with reddish urine, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), dripping urine with pain, uroschesis (retention of urine), diarrhea and dysentery, eczema, pruritus vulvae, morbid leukorrhea, erosion of vulva, leukorrhoea, jaundice, ascaris, pinworms, hookworm, malnutritional stagnation, scabies, hemorrhoids and swelling, etc.

 Administration of Herba Polygoni Avicularis (Biān Xù): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Polygoni Avicularis (Biān Xù)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 9~15 grams. Externally:proper amount, wash the affected area with water decoction; ②.Internally: water decoction, 2~3 qian (about 6~9 grams), or extract juice. Externally:mashed the herb and apply stick, or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, to kill parasites with single herb recipe 30~60 grams, extract juice from fresh herb to drink,50~100 grams. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction, mashed and apply stick, or extract juice and smear.




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