Introduction of Bian Xu:Common Knotgrass Herb or Herba Polygoni Avicularis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 TCM Herbs Icon09 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.

 
Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Common Knotgrass Herb).

Herba Polygoni Avicularis Pin Yin Name: Biān Xù.
 English Name: Common Knotgrass Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Polygoni Avicularis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Polygoni Avicularis is the dried aerial part of Polygonum aviculare L.(family Polygonaceae), used (1).to promote diuresis and eliminate damp-heat in cases of stranguria with turbid urine and morbid leukorrhea, and (2).to dispel wind-damp in cases of arthralgia. The herb is commonly known as Herba Polygoni Avicularis, Common Knotgrass Herb, Biān Xù.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Common Knotgrass Herb) as the dried aerial part or whole herb of the species (1). Polygonum aviculare L. It is a plant of the Polygonum L. genus, the Polygonaceae family of the Polygonales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Polygonum aviculare L. (1).Polygonum aviculare L.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Biān Xù. Annual herbs. Stems prostrate, ascending or erect, 10~40 cm tall, much-branched from base, with longitudinal ribs. Leaves elliptic, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 1~4 cm long, 3~12 mm wide, apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate, margin entire, both surfaces glabrous, lower lateral veins conspicuous; Petiole short or subsessile, base jointed; Leaf-sheath membranous, lower brown, upper white, laceration veins obvious.

 Polygonum aviculare L. Flowers solitary or several clusters in leaf axils, throughout the plant; Bracts membranous; Pedicels slender, apically articulated; Tepals 5-lobed, tepals elliptic, 2~2.5 mm long, green, margin white or reddish; 8 stamens, filaments base spreading; 3 style, stigma capitate. Achene ovate, 3-ribbed, 2.5~3 mm long, dark brown, densely pinstriped with small dots, glabrous, subequal or slightly longer than persistent perianth. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from June to August.

 Polygonum aviculare L. Ecological environment: The plant grows in fields roadside, wasteland and river, etc. It widely distributes in the north temperate zone, it distributes all over China. The plant grows in the wetland of farmland and gully at an elevation of 10~4,200 meters above sea level. It prefers cold, humid climate conditions, heat resistance, drought tolerance. The seeds germinated at above 10 ℃, the plants grow well at 15~27 ℃. Its achene resistance to cold is extremely strong, can be normal overwintering in -40℃ low temperature. It has good adaptability to the soil, can grow well in general, it can even grow in saline sand wasteland rich in organic matter, fertile sandy loam. It distributes throughout China and is produced in most areas of the country.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Polygonum aviculare has strong adaptability to climate, it can grow in cold mountain areas or warm flat dam. It prefers soil with good drainage sandy loam.

 Polygonum aviculare L. Characters of herbs: Dry whole grass, stem cylindrical slightly flat, more curved, about 1.5~3 mm in diameter, brownish-red or gray-green surface, smooth glabrous, with longitudinal texture, nodes expanded, residual reddish-brown or white film transparent sheath, internode length is different; Stem near base, hard, softer at tip, broken face yellowish-white, center with broad pith, sometimes hollow. Leaf-blade greenish-brown or grayish-green, usually glabrescent. Peanuts in leaf axils, red, but most have faded away; Perianth yellow-green, apical margin pink, containing 1 achene, triangular-ovate. The weak smell, cool taste. The herb color green, leaves, quality tender, no impurities is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Diuresis: Herba Polygoni Avicularis is believed in TCM to prompt diuresis and treat five types of stranguria and whitish turbid urine. Herba Polygoni Avicularis has been shown to have diuretic effects. Rats fed with 20g/kg of Herba Polygoni Avicularis water decoction can increase urine output, sodium and potassium output, its ash content has the same effect. The potassium salt, avicularoside are the component for this effect. ②.Antibacterial effect: The experiment showed that the whole herb decoction has an inhibitory effect on Shigeila flexneri and Sonne bacillus, the decoction has an inhibitory effect on Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Bacillus piliformis, and the water decoction has an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and dermatophytes. ③.Hypotensive effects: intravenous injection of Herba Polygoni Avicularis water and ethanol extract have hypotensive effects on cats, rabbits, and dogs. ④.Effect on uterine and hemostatic effects: water and ethanol extract of the herb has the ability to accelerate blood coagulation and increase uterine tension. It can be used as a hemostatic agent for uterine bleeding after abortion and delivery. ⑤.Other effects: the herb can enhance the amplitude of respiratory movement and lung ventilation, has a mild astringent effect, can be used as a medicine for trauma.

 Medicinal efficacy: Prompt diuresis and treating stranguria, clear heat, kill parasites, relieve itching. It is indicated for stranguria, pyretic stranguria of the urinary bladder, oliguria with reddish urine, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), dripping urine with pain, uroschesis(retention of urine), diarrhea and dysentery, eczema, pruritus vulvae, morbid leukorrhea, erosion of vulva, leukorrhoea, jaundice, ascaris, pinworms, hookworm, malnutritional stagnation, scabies, hemorrhoids and swelling, etc.

 Administration of Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Biān Xù): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Biān Xù)
TCM Books: Internally:9~15 grams. Externally:proper amount, wash the affected area with water decoction(CP), Internally: water decoction, 2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams), or extract juice. Externally:mashed the herb and apply stick, or wash with water decoction(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, to kill parasites with single herb recipe 30~60 grams, extract juice from fresh herb to drink,50~100 grams. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction, mashed and apply stick, or extract juice and smear(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Bian Xu:Common Knotgrass Herb or Herba Polygoni Avicularis.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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