Introduction of Bian Xu:Common Knotgrass Herb or Herba Polygoni Avicularis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Knotgrass Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Polygonum aviculare L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Common Knotgrass Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Common Knotgrass Herb).

Herba Polygoni Avicularis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Biān Xù.
 English Name: Common Knotgrass Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Polygoni Avicularis.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Polygoni Avicularis is the dried aerial part of Polygonum aviculare L.(family Polygonaceae), used (1).to promote diuresis and eliminate damp-heat in cases of stranguria with turbid urine and morbid leukorrhea, and (2).to dispel wind-damp in cases of arthralgia. The herb is commonly known as Herba Polygoni Avicularis, Common Knotgrass Herb, Biān Xù.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Common Knotgrass Herb) as the dried aerial part or whole herb of the species (1). Polygonum aviculare L. It is a plant of the Polygonum L. genus, the Polygonaceae family of the Polygonales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Polygonum aviculare L.

 Polygonum aviculare L.:drawing of plant and herb Botanical description: It is commonly known as Biān Xù. Annual herbs. Stems prostrate, ascending or erect, 10~40 cm tall, much-branched from base, with longitudinal ribs. Leaves elliptic, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 1~4 cm long, 3~12 mm wide, apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate, margin entire, both surfaces glabrous, lower lateral veins conspicuous; Petiole short or subsessile, base jointed; Leaf-sheath membranous, lower brown, upper white, laceration veins obvious.

 Polygonum aviculare L.:growing plant Flowers solitary or several clusters in leaf axils, throughout the plant; Bracts membranous; Pedicels slender, apically articulated; Tepals 5-lobed, tepals elliptic, 2~2.5 mm long, green, margin white or reddish; 8 stamens, filaments base spreading; 3 style, stigma capitate. Achene ovate, 3-ribbed, 2.5~3 mm long, dark brown, densely pinstriped with small dots, glabrous, subequal or slightly longer than persistent perianth. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from June to August.

 Polygonum aviculare L.:growing plant Ecological environment: The plant grows in fields roadside, wasteland and river, etc. It widely distributes in the north temperate zone, it distributes all over China. The plant grows in the wetland of farmland and gully at an elevation of 10~4,200 meters above sea level. It prefers cold, humid climate conditions, heat resistance, drought tolerance. The seeds germinated at above 10 ℃, the plants grow well at 15~27 ℃. Its achene resistance to cold is extremely strong, can be normal overwintering in -40℃ low temperature. It has good adaptability to the soil, can grow well in general, it can even grow in saline sand wasteland rich in organic matter, fertile sandy loam. It distributes throughout China and is produced in most areas of the country.

 Polygonum aviculare L.:growing plant Growth characteristics: The plant Polygonum aviculare has strong adaptability to climate, it can grow in cold mountain areas or warm flat dam. It prefers soil with good drainage sandy loam.

 Common Knotgrass Herb:herb photo Characters of herbs: The stem is cylindrical and slightly flat, with branches, 10~40 cm long and 1.0~3 mm in diameter. The surface is grayish-green or brownish-red, with fine, dense, and slightly raised longitudinal lines; The nodes are slightly enlarged, with light-brown membranous stipules, internodes' length is different. The texture of the herb is hard, easily broken, white pith is visible at the fracture surface. Leaves are alternate, mostly falling off or shrunken and broken. After flattening, the intact ones are oblong or lanceolate, with a length of l~4 cm and a width of about 5 mm, whole edge, grayish-green or brownish-green. Sometimes small achenes with persistent perianth can be seen, the achenes are dark brown, ovoid trigonous. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade is tender, leafy, and grayish-green.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.diuretic effects; ②.antibacterial effect:inhibitory effect on Shigeila flexneri and Sonne bacillus, the decoction has an inhibitory effect on Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Bacillus piliformis, inhibitory effect on staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and dermatophytes. ③.Hypotensive effects; ④.Effect on uterine and hemostatic effects; ⑤.Other effects: enhance the amplitude of respiratory movement and lung ventilation, mild astringent effect, can be used as a medicine for trauma.

 Medicinal efficacy: Prompt diuresis and treating stranguria, clear heat, kill parasites, relieve itching. It is indicated for stranguria, pyretic stranguria of the urinary bladder, oliguria with reddish urine, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), dripping urine with pain, uroschesis(retention of urine), diarrhea and dysentery, eczema, pruritus vulvae, morbid leukorrhea, erosion of vulva, leukorrhoea, jaundice, ascaris, pinworms, hookworm, malnutritional stagnation, scabies, hemorrhoids and swelling, etc.

 Administration of Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Biān Xù): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Polygoni Avicularis(Biān Xù)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~15 grams. Externally:proper amount, wash the affected area with water decoction;②.Internally: water decoction, 2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams), or extract juice. Externally:mashed the herb and apply stick, or wash with water decoction;③.Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, to kill parasites with single herb recipe 30~60 grams, extract juice from fresh herb to drink,50~100 grams. Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction, mashed and apply stick, or extract juice and smear.

Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.
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