Introduction of Zhu Ling:Chuling, Umbellate Polypore, or Polyporus.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chuling,Umbellate Polypore., its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one fungus species, ①.Polyporus umbellatus(Pers)Fr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this fungus species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this fungus species, the features of the herb Chuling,Umbellate Polypore., its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Polyporus(Chuling,Umbellate Polypore).

Polyporus:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zhū Línɡ.
 English Name: Chuling,Umbellate Polypore.
 Latin Name: Polyporus.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tasteless, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Polyporus is the dried sclerotium of the fungus Polyporus umbellatus(Pers.) Fries(family Polyporaceae), used as a diuretic for edema and oliguria, and also to filter out damp for treating leukorrhagia. This herb is commonly known as Polyporus, Chuling, Umbellate Polypore, Agaric, Zhū Línɡ.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Polyporus(Chuling, Umbellate Polypore) as the sclerotium of the species (1).Polyporus umbellatus(Pers)Fr., it is a fungus of the Polyporus genus, the Polyporaceae family, the Polyporales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Polyporus umbellatus(Pers)Fr.

 Polyporus umbellatus Pers Fr.:growing mushroom Botanical description: It is commonly known as Grifola umbellatus(Pers.) Pilat, or Zhū Líng. The sclellate is irregular, showing clumps of different sizes, solid, purplish-black on the surface, with most uneven wrinkles, and white on the inside. The size is generally 3~5 cm × 3~20 cm. The fruiting body arises from the buried scleral, has a stalk and branches many times, forming a plexus cover, with a total diameter up to 20 cm. Fungicidal cap round, 1~4 cm in diameter, midumbilical, with yellowish fibrous scales, nearly white to light brown, unringed, margin thin and sharp, often curly, fleshy, hard and crisp when dry. Mushroom flesh thin, white. The tubule is about 2 mm long, the same color as the flesh, and extends downward. Tube orifice round to polygon, each 1 mm between 3~4. Spores colorless, smooth, cylindrical, round at one end, tipped at the other, (7~10) muon ×(3~4.2) muon.

 The life cycle of Polyporus is divided into four stages: spore, mycelium, sclerotia, and fruiting body. Basidiospore is a sexual spore produced by the fruiting body (long ovoid oval, pointed at one end, colorless, smooth, 7~10×3~4 mm), forming primary mycelium after germination, primary mycelium body with secondary mycelium produced dinucleate mycelium, many secondary mycelium closely entangles into the mycelium. Sclerotium mainly stores nutrients and is resistant to high, low temperature and drought. Under inappropriate conditions, it can remain dormant for a long time and can germinate and produce new mycelia in any part of mycelium under appropriate temperature, humidity and nutrient conditions. Generally, in late March, 5 cm of the surface layer temperature reached 8-9℃, the scleral began to grow, the germination of many white spots on the scleral body, with the rise in temperature, the wool spots grow and thicken, forming a plump shiny white scleral, gradually to the surface growth. In August and September, when the ground temperature reached 12~20 ℃, the growth of the bacterial nucleus entered the flourishing period, and the volume and weight increased rapidly. The color of sclerotia changes from white to yellow from base to the middle. At this time, such as continuous rainy days, air humidity increased, part of the growth of the fruiting body, open spore. As the ground temperature drops, the fruiting bodies quickly wither and rot. After October, when the temperature drops to 8~9 ℃, the fungus stops growing and goes into hibernation. The next spring new sclerotia germinated. In this way, the group gathers and forms a nest. The soil is fertile, the nutrition is rich, the sclerotia is big and many, the bifurcation is little, the common name "the porcine excrement ling"; Soil barren, insufficient nutrition, knot part small, bifurcation, commonly known as "chicken excrement ling." When the external environmental conditions are extremely adverse, the callus will stop growing, the sclerotia will age, the color will become dark, the nuclear body will appear size holes, until decay. The relationship between Polyporus and armillaria mellea is a nutritional relationship between parasitism and anti-parasitism, which can also be regarded as a symbiotic relationship.

 Polyporus umbellatus Pers Fr.:fresh sclerotium Ecological environment: The plant grows on the ground near the roots of the forest or near saprophytes. Resources distribution: The plant distributes in the northwest, southwest, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, China.

 Polyporus umbellatus Pers Fr.:dried sclerotium Growth characteristics: It is wild in secondary forests of mountain areas with 1,000~2,000 meters. In the rainy south area it grows more in the sunny slope, in the north it grows more in the Yin slope or half sunny slope. The sclerotia began to germinate at ground temperature of 8~9 ℃. At the average monthly ground temperature of 14~20 ℃, the new fungus grew faster and germinated more. Fruiting bodies were formed at 22~25 ℃. It is suitable to grow in loose and breathable sandy loam with high humus content and rich acid content. It lives in symbiosis with Armillaria mellea, so its associated plants are related to Armillaria mellea saprophyte and parasitic tree species, often lives together with other tree species such as tussah, birch, maple, oak, elm, willow, maple and fructus ligustri.

 Polyporus:herb slices photo Characters of herbs: The sclerotium is irregular, strip-shaped, round, or flat, and some of them are branched, with a length of 5~25 cm and a diameter of 2~6 cm. The surface is black, gray-black, or brown-black, with shrinkage or nodular protrusion. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is white or yellowish-white, slightly granular. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes mild. The herb of better grade is big and heavy, with black skin, the fracture surface is white.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.diuretic effect; ②.antibacterial effect: the alcohol extract of Umbellate Polypore has an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli; ③.immune enhancement, antitumor effect; ④.protective effect on the liver of mice with toxic hepatitis; ⑤.antiradiation effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing damp and promoting diuresis. It is indicated for dysuria(difficulty in micturition), edema, edema and distension swelling fullness, diarrhea, stranguria with turbid discharge, morbid leukorrhea, beriberi.

 Administration of Polyporus(Zhū Línɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Polyporus(Zhū Línɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams;②.Internally:water decoction,2~4 qian(about 6~12 grams),or prepare to pill,powder;③.Internally:water decoction,10~15 grams,prepared to pill,powder.

Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.

 Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.
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