Introduction of Che Qian Zi:Plantain Seed or Semen Plantaginis.
✵The article gives records of the herb Plantain Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its officially defined botanical source two plant species, ①.Plantago asiatica L., ②.Plantago depressa Willd., and other one usable plant species, ③.Plantago major L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Plantain Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed).
Pin Yin Name: Chē Qián Zǐ.
English Name: Plantain Seed.
Latin Name: Semen Plantaginis.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Semen Plantaginis is the dried ripe seed of Plantago asiatica L. or Plantago depressa Willd.(family Plantaginaceae), used (1).to induce diuresis and filter out damp for treating watery diarrhea, edema and stranguria, (2).to clear the liver and improve vision in cases of eye diseases, and (3).to clear the lung and resolve phlegm for cases of cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Semen Plantaginis, Plantain Seed, Chē Qián Zǐ.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Plantago asiatica L., or (2). Plantago depressa Willd., other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Plantaginis(Plantain Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Plantago asiatica L., or (2). Plantago depressa Willd., or (3). Plantago major L. They are plants of the Plantago genus, the Plantaginaceae(plantain family) family, the Lamiales order. These commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Plantago asiatica L.
Botanical description: The Plantago asiatica L, is a plant of Plantaginaceae(plantain family) family and Plantago genus, it is commonly known as "Che Qian", perennial herbaceous plants, and even the stems can be as high as 50 cm. With fibrous roots; with long stems, as long as a blade or as long as leaf blade, base enlarged; leaf blade ovate or elliptic, 4~12 cm long, 2~7 cm wide, apex obtuse or obtuse, base narrowed growth stem, entire or in Irregular wavy shallow teeth, usually 5-7 arc veins. Flowers several stems, 12~50 cm high, angular, sparsely hairy, spikes to flower stems 2/5-1/2; flowers pale green flowers with 1 persistent bracts, triangular; 4 calyxes, base slightly Corolla small, membranous, corolla tube ovate, apex 4 lobes triangular, outward rewinding; 4 stamens, grow in the corolla tube near the base, and corolla lobes alternate, anthers oblong, apex with triangular protrusions, filaments linear; 1 pistil; ovary superior, ovoid, 2-locular (fake 4-locular), 1 style, linear-hairy. Capsule ovate-conic, after maturing around 2/5 peripherally cleft, below 2/5 persistent. 4~8 or 9 seeds, nearly oval, dark brown. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting in October.
Growth habit: The plantain grass has strong adaptability, cold and drought tolerance, and has strict requirements on the soil. It can grow well in warm, humid, sunny, and sandy loam soils. The stems and leaves can normally grow in the temperature range of 20~24 °C, and the temperature exceeds 32 °C. There will be slow growth, withered until the whole plant dies, and the soil is slightly sandy soil alluvial loam.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in the grassland, ditch, riverbank wetland, roadside, or village edge, at areas with an altitude 3~3,200 meters above the sea level. The plant distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, northwest area, southwest area, Hainan, and Taiwan of China. It also distributes in Nepal, Malaysia, the far east, other regions of East Asia.
Characters of herbs: The seeds are slightly oval or irregularly oblong, slightly flat, about 2 mm long, and 1 mm wide. The surface is light brown or brown, slightly rough and uneven. Tiny and fine longitudinal lines can be seen under the magnifying glass, and there is a light yellow concave hilum in the middle of the slightly flat side. The texture of the herb is hard, the surface of the cross-section is gray-white. When seeds are put into water, mucus is released from the outer skin. The herb has a slight odor, it is sticky when chewed. The herb of better grade has large grains, even plumpness and brown-red color.
Pharmacological actions: ①.diuretic effect.
Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and diuretic, alleviate water retention, excreting dampness, treating stranguria, excreting dampness and relieve diarrhea, bright eyes, expectorant. It is indicated for edema and distension, urination obstruction, pyretic stranguria, stranguria with turbid discharge, morbid leukorrhea, hematuria(blood in the urine), heat dampness and diarrhea, diarrhea and dysentery, red eyes and swelling pain, nebula, phlegm heat with cough, cough with much phlegm, arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness, etc.
Administration of Semen Plantaginis(Chē Qián Zǐ):
Administration Guide of Semen Plantaginis(Chē Qián Zǐ)
①.Internally:9~15 grams,wrapped to decoct;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:wash with water decoction,or grinded into fine powder and apply;③.Internally:water decoction,5~15 grams,wrapped to decoct,prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount,wash with water decoction,or grinded into fine powder and apply stick.
(2).Plantago depressa Willd.
Botanical description: The Plantago depressa Willd., is a plant of Plantaginaceae(plantain family) family and Plantago genus, it is commonly known as "Ping Che Qian". Annual or biennial herb. Straight roots, with most lateral roots, much fleshy. Short rhizomes. The plantago depressa willd is in the shape of a rosette, lying supine, obliquely or erectly; leaf blade papery, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3~12 cm long, 1~3.5 cm wide, apex acute or slightly obtuse, With wavy blunt teeth, irregular serrations or teeth, base broadly cuneate to narrowly cuneate, base spreading to petiole, 5~7 veins, slightly concave above, abruptly raised on abaxial surface, sparsely white pubescent on both surfaces; petiole length 2~6 cm, the base expands into a sheath.
Inflorescences more than 3~10; peduncles 5~18 cm long, with vertical stripes, sparsely white pubescent; spikes terete-cylindrical, densely dense, base often interrupted, long 6~12 cm; sepals triangular-ovate, 2~3.5 mm long, concave, hairless, keel width, and width, wider than the two sides of the sheet, do not extend to or extend to the top. Calyx 2~2.5 mm long, glabrous, keels extended broadly, do not extend to the top, frontal bracts narrowly obovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic, posterior to bracts obovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic. Corolla white, glabrous, crown equal or slightly longer than sepals, lobes tiny, elliptic or ovate, 0.5~1 mm long, reflexed after flowering. Stamens on the inner surface of the crown tube near the apical surface, with style prominently exserted, anthers ovate-elliptic or broadly elliptic, 0.6~1.1 mm long, apex with broad triangular-like small processes, fresh white or greenish white, dry after transformation Light brown. Ovule 5.
Capsule ovate-ovate to conical-ovate, 4~5 mm in length, cleft above base. 4~5 seeds, elliptic, ventral surface flat, 1.2~1.8 mm long, yellow-brown to black; cotyledon dorsal-ventral arrangement. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from July to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in grassland, riverbank, ditch edge, meadow, field, and roadside, at the area with an altitude of 5~4,500 meters above sea level. It distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, northwest area, southwest area of China. It also distributes in Siberia to the far east, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir.
Characters of herbs: The seeds are long oval-shaped, slightly flat, 0.90~1.75 mm long and 0.60~0.98 mm wide. The surface is black laurel or brown, the back is slightly raised, the ventral surface is relatively flat, and there is an obvious white concave hilum in the center. The herb of better grade has large grains, even plumpness and brown-red color.
(3).Plantago major L.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Dà Chē Qián. Herbs biennial or perennial. Fibrous root majority. The rhizome is short and stout. Leaves basal rosette, prostrate, oblique or erect; Leaf blade grassy, thin papery or papery, broadly ovate to broadly elliptic, 3~18~30 cm long, 2~11~21 cm wide, apex obtuse or acute, margin undulate, sparsely irregular teeth or nearly entire, both surfaces sparsely pubescent or nearly glabrous, few densely pubescent, 3~5~7 veins; Petiole long 1~3~10~26 cm, base sheathed, often hairy.
Inflorescence 1 to several; Inflorescences erect or arched, long 2~5~18 cm, longitudinally striated, pubescent or pilose; Inflorescences thin terete, 1~3~20 cm, base often discontinuous; Bracts broadly ovate-triangular, 1.2~2 mm long, broadly equal to or slightly more than long, glabrous or apex sparsely shortly hairy, keel process broad and thick. Flowers without terrier; Calyx 1.5~2.5 mm long, sepals apex rounded, glabrous or sparsely shortly hairy, margin membranous, keel process apical, anterior to sepals elliptic to broadly elliptic, posterior to sepals broadly elliptic to subcircular. Corolla white, glabrous, coronal tube equal or slightly longer than sepals, lobes lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1~1.5 mm long, reflexed after flowers. Stamens inserted near the base of the inner surface of the coronal tube, with style conspicuously exserted, anthers elliptic, 1~1.2 mm long, usually purplish at first, pale white, pale brown when dry. Ovules 12 to 40.
Capsule subglobose, ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, 2-3 mm long, circumferentially lobed in the middle or slightly lower. Seeds 8~34, ovate, elliptic or rhomboid, 0.8~1.2 mm long, angular, ventral raised or nearly flat, yellowish-brown; Cotyledons arranged dorsoventrally. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in grassland, meadow, riverbank, ditch, swamp, hillside roadside, field edge, or wasteland, at the area with an altitude of 5~2,800 meters above sea level. The plant distributes in the temperate zone and cold temperate zone of the Asia-Europe continent, in the world around the naturalization. The herb distributes in the northwest, north, southwest area, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Hainan, Taiwan of China.
Characters of herbs: The seeds are triangular or rhombic, with small grains, 0.88~1.60 mm in length and 0.55~0.90 mm in width. The surface is brown or brown, the ventral bulge is high, and the umbilical point is white, mostly located in the center or one end of the ventral bulge. The herb of better grade has large grains, even plumpness and brown-red color.
Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Diuretics.
Introduction: Herbs Diuretics: also known as damp-draining diuretic herbs,an agent or substance herbs that increases urine excretion and water discharge for treating internal retention of dampness.
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1.Introduction of Che Qian Zi:Plantain Seed or Semen Plantaginis.