Introduction of Qian Nian Jian:Obscured Homalomena Rhizome or Rhizoma Homalomenae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Obscured Homalomena Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Obscured Homalomena Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Homalomenae(Obscured Homalomena Rhizome).

dried rhizome and green leaves of Homalomenae Pin Yin Name: Qiān Nián Jiàn.
 English Name: Obscured Homalomena Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Homalomenae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Homalomenae is the dried rhizome of Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott, used to dispel wind-damp, strengthen tendons and bones, and alleviate rheumatic pain for treating rheumatoid arthritis with cold sensation and pain in the back and knees, and contracture of the lower limbs. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Homalomenae, Obscured Homalomena Rhizome, Qiān Nián Jiàn.

 Botanical source: Famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Homalomenae (Obscured Homalomena Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1).Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott. It is a plant of the Homalomena. Genus, Araceae family (aroid, arum family), Arales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott.

 plants of Homalomena occulta Lour.Schott. grow in field with many green leaves Botanical description: Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott is also known as Calla occulta Lour., Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl. (H. cochinchinensis Engl.), or Homalomena tokinensis Engl. (H. tokinensis Engl.), is commonly known as Qiān Nián Jiàn, Obscured Homalomena Rhizome, Rhizome of Obscured Homalomena. A perennial herb. Rhizomes are procumbent, thin and long, 1.5 cm thick. The root is succulent, densely covered with pale brown short fluff (tomentose), fibrous roots that are fibriform. Usually, the plant has upright aboveground stems, 30~50 cm tall. Scale leaves are linear-lanceolate, up to 16 cm long, base is 2.5 cm wide, narrowing upward, sharply pointed; petioles are 20~40 cm long, the sheath on the lower part is 3~5 mm wide; leaf blades are membranous to chartaceous (papery), arrow-shaped cordate to cordate, 15~30 cm long, 10~28 cm wide, apex is abruptly narrowing and acuminate; lateral veins are parallel and ascending obliquely.

 a colorful drawing of Homalomena occulta Lour.Schott,stem and rhizome,stems and leaves,flowers 1~3 Inflorescences, grow in the axil of scale leaves, pedicels are shorter than petioles; spathe is greenish-white, oblong to elliptic, 5~6.5 cm long, curl to fusiform (spindle-shape) before flowering phase, the upper part slightly unfold to short shipform in flowering phase; spadix is 3~5 cm long; female inflorescences are 1~1.5 cm long, 4~5 mm thick; male inflorescences are 2~3 cm long, 3~4 mm thick. The ovary is oblong, the base has 1 false stamen on one side, the ovary has three loculi.

 Berry, seeds are brown and oblong. Its flowering period is from July to September.

 plants of Homalomena occulta Lour.Schott. grow near the treeEcological environment: The plant grows in the jungle (thick forest) of a gully, bamboo groves, and bushes on hillsides and mountain slopes, in areas at altitudes of 80~1,100 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang River area, Hainan, Yunnan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Homalomena occulta prefers a warm and dankish climate, is not resistant to cold, and avoids strong light. It is advisable to choose fertile, loose sandy loam for cultivation.

 dries herb slices and segments of Obscured Homalomena Rhizome in a pile Characters of herbs: The rhizome of the herb is cylindrical, or slightly curved, some are slightly flat, 15~40 cm long, and 0.8~2 cm in diameter. The surface is reddish brown or yellowish-brown, coarse and rough and has many twisted longitudinal grooves, round root marks, and yellowish-white fibrous bundles. The texture of the herb is crisp, and easy to break, the fracture surface is reddish brown, resinoid (resin-like), and has many exposed fibrous bundles and round glossy oil spots. The herb has an aromatic odor, and it tastes pungent and slightly bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibit primary inflammation and secondary inflammation; ②.inhibitory effect on the ear swelling induced by xylene in mice, which indicates that it had an anti-acute inflammation effect; ③.anti-rheumatoid arthritis; ④.analgesic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Expelling wind-damp, strengthen muscles and bones, relax tendons and activate collaterals, relieve pain, reduce swelling, promote blood circulation and relieve pain. It is indicated for the wind-cold-wetness type of arthralgia, rheumatic arthralgia pain, cold and pain of waist and knee, soreness of limb and joints, weakness and flaccidity of muscles and bones, constriction and numbness of lower limbs, traumatic injury of falls, gastralgia (stomach pain), carbuncle-abscess and sore swelling.

 Administration of Rhizoma Homalomenae (Qiān Nián Jiàn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Homalomenae (Qiān Nián Jiàn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or infusing in wine. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,9~15 grams, or infusing in wine. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Homalomenae should not be combined with radish's seed.




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