Introduction of Xuan Fu Hua:Inula Flower or Flos Inulae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:expectorants,herbs for resolving cold-phlegm.

 TCM Herbs Icon03 Introduction: Expectorants,herbs for resolving cold-phlegm: an agent or substance herbs warm in property, used in treating disorders of cold-phlegm or phlegm-dampness.

 
Flos Inulae(Inula Flower).

Inula Flower Pin Yin Name: Xuán Fù Huā.
 English Name: Inula Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Inulae.
 Property and flavor: slight warm, bitter, pungent, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Inulae is the dried flower-head of Inula japonica Thunb., or Inula britannica L.(family Compositae), used as an expectorant for relieving cough and asthma with excessive phlegm, and as an antiemetic for belching and vomiting. The herb is commonly known as Flos Inulae, Inula Flower, Xuán Fù Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Inulae(Inula Flower) is the dried flower-head of Inula japonica Thunb., or Inula britannica L., they are plants of the Inula genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. It is also known as Inula Flower, the flower of Japanese Inula, the flower of Linearleaf Inula, the flower of British Inula, or Xuán Fù Huā.

 Inula britannica L. Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Inulae(Inula Flower) as the dried flower-head of:(1).Inula japonica Thunb., or (2).Inula britannica L. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Inula japonica Thunb. (1).Inula japonica Thunb.:
 Botanical description: Perennial herbs, 30-80 cm tall. Rhizome is short, transverse or oblique ascending, with fibrous roots. Stems solitary or fascicled, green or purple, rill furrowed, long hairy. The central leaves are oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 4~13 cm long, 1.5~4.5 cm wide, apex acute, base gradually narrow, often with small ears of the circular semi-clasped stem, sessile, entire or sparsely toothed, upper mask sparsely hairy or subglabrous, lower mask sparsely hairy and glandular points, middle veins and side veins densely hairy. Upper leaves becoming smaller, linear-lanceolate. Inflorescence capitate, 3~4 cm in diameter, most or few arranged into an evacuated corymbose inflorescence; Peduncle slender; Involucral bracts hemispherical, 1.3~1.7 cm in diameter, involucral bracts about 5 layers, linear-lanceolate, outermost layer leafy and long. Outer base leathery, upper leaf leathery; Inner layer dry film; Ligulate flowers yellow, 2~2.5 times longer than involucre; Tongue linear, 10~13 mm long; Tubular flower corolla ca. 5 mm long, with three lanceolate lobes; Crested white, 1-wheeled, with more than 20 coarse hairs. Achene cylindrical, 1~1.2 mm long, 10 longitudinal trenches, sparsely pubescent. Its flowering period is from June to October, fruiting from September to November.

 Inula japonica Thunb. Ecological environment:  The plant grows at an area with an altitude of 150~2,400 meters above sea level, on hillsides and roadsides, moist grasslands, riverbanks, and ridge fields. It widely distributes in the north area, east area, central area, and Guangxi province of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on hillsides, ditches, roadside wetlands. A warm and humid climate is best. It grows well in fertile sandy loam or humus loam.

 Characters of herbs: dry flower heads oblate, sometimes scattered, 8~15 mm in diameter(linear leaves smaller, 4~10 mm). At the base there are 4 layers(3 layers of twined flowers) of the pale grayish green, membranous involucre, sometimes with pedicels. Outer margin 1 layer lingual flower, yellow, ca. 1 cm long, apex 3-dentate, much curly; Central tubular flowers are dense, corolla 5-toothed, most white crown hairs on the top of ovary, about 5 mm long(about 3 mm for twined leaves), soft, easy to scatter, weak smells, slightly bitter and salty taste. The herb with big flower, golden yellow, have a white nap, without branch stem is beautiful.

 Pharmacological actions: 1.Antibacterial effect: the decoction of Flos Inulae shows inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus B, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus diphtheriae, pneumococcus, Staphylococcus albus, etc. ②.Antitussive and antiasthmatic effect: Flos Inulae flavonoids have a relieving effect on the bronchial spasm caused by histamine in guinea pigs, and its decoction has an antitussive effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Downbear Qi(sending down abnormally ascending), dissolving phlegm, circulate water, controlling nausea and vomiting, indicated for cough due to wind-cold, phlegm and retained fluid accumulation, distention and fullness in chest and diaphragm, dyspnea and cough with excessive sputum, epigastric fullness and rigidity.

 Administration of Flos Inulae(Xuán Fù Huā): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Inulae(Xuán Fù Huā)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), or 3~10 grams(CHMM), water decoction, wrap-boiling or strained the hairs.


 Inula britannica L. (2).Inula britannica L.:
 Botanical description: Leaf blade oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, base-wide, cordate, ear, semi-clasped. Head, 2.5~5 cm in diameter; Involucre diameter 1.5~2.2 cm, 1 cm long. Achene cylindrical, shallow furrowed, covered with short hairs.

 Ecological environment:  The plant grows on the river bank, wet slope, ridge, and roadside. It distributes in the north area, northwest area, and other areas of China.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xuan Fu Hua:Inula Flower or Flos Inulae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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