Introduction of Xuan Fu Hua:Inula Flower or Flos Inulae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Inula Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Inula japonica Thunb., ②.Inula britannica L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Inula Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Inulae(Inula Flower).

Inula Flower Pin Yin Name: Xuán Fù Huā.
 English Name: Inula Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Inulae.
 Property and flavor: slight warm, bitter, pungent, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Inulae is the dried flower-head of Inula japonica Thunb., or Inula britannica L.(family Compositae), used as an expectorant for relieving cough and asthma with excessive phlegm, and as an antiemetic for belching and vomiting. The herb is commonly known as Flos Inulae, Inula Flower, Xuán Fù Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Inulae(Inula Flower) is the dried flower-head of Inula japonica Thunb., or Inula britannica L., they are plants of the Inula genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. It is also known as Inula Flower, the flower of Japanese Inula, the flower of Linearleaf Inula, the flower of British Inula, or Xuán Fù Huā.

 Inula britannica L.:flowering plant Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Flos Inulae(Inula Flower) as the dried flower-head of:(1).Inula japonica Thunb., or (2).Inula britannica L. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Inula japonica Thunb.

 Inula japonica Thunb.:flowering plant Botanical description: Perennial herbs, 30-80 cm tall. Rhizome is short, transverse or oblique ascending, with fibrous roots. Stems solitary or fascicled, green or purple, rill furrowed, long hairy. The central leaves are oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 4~13 cm long, 1.5~4.5 cm wide, apex acute, base gradually narrow, often with small ears of the circular semi-clasped stem, sessile, entire or sparsely toothed, upper mask sparsely hairy or subglabrous, lower mask sparsely hairy and glandular points, middle veins and side veins densely hairy. Upper leaves becoming smaller, linear-lanceolate. Inflorescence capitate, 3~4 cm in diameter, most or few arranged into an evacuated corymbose inflorescence; Peduncle slender; Involucral bracts hemispherical, 1.3~1.7 cm in diameter, involucral bracts about 5 layers, linear-lanceolate, outermost layer leafy and long. Outer base leathery, upper leaf leathery; Inner layer dry film; Ligulate flowers yellow, 2~2.5 times longer than involucre; Tongue linear, 10~13 mm long; Tubular flower corolla ca. 5 mm long, with three lanceolate lobes; Crested white, 1-wheeled, with more than 20 coarse hairs. Achene cylindrical, 1~1.2 mm long, 10 longitudinal trenches, sparsely pubescent. Its flowering period is from June to October, fruiting from September to November.

 Inula Flower:herb photo. Ecological environment:  The plant grows at an area with an altitude of 150~2,400 meters above sea level, on hillsides and roadsides, moist grasslands, riverbanks, and ridge fields. It widely distributes in the north area, east area, central area, and Guangxi province of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on hillsides, ditches, roadside wetlands. A warm and humid climate is best. It grows well in fertile sandy loam or humus loam.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is oblate or spheroidal with a diameter of 1 ~ 2 cm. The involucre is composed of many bracts, which are arranged in tile shape, and the bracts are lanceolate or strip-shaped, grayish yellow, 4 ~ 11 mm long. Pedicels sometimes remain at the base of involucre, and the surfaces of bracts and pedicels are covered with white hairs, with 1 row of ligulate flowers, yellow, about 1 cm long, curly and often shedding, and the apex is 3-toothed; Tubular flowers are numerous, brownish yellow, about 5 mm long, and the apex is 5-toothed; There are many white hairs on the top of ovary, 5 ~ 6 mm long. Some oval achenes can be seen. The herb is light, easily broken. It has slight smell, taste slightly bitter. The herb which is large, golden yellow, white hairs and no branches is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antibacterial effect:the decoction of Flos Inulae shows inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus B, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus diphtheriae, pneumococcus, Staphylococcus albus, etc; ②.Antitussive and antiasthmatic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Downbear Qi(sending down abnormally ascending), dissolving phlegm, circulate water, controlling nausea and vomiting, indicated for cough due to wind-cold, phlegm and retained fluid accumulation, distention and fullness in chest and diaphragm, dyspnea and cough with excessive sputum, epigastric fullness and rigidity.

 Administration of Flos Inulae(Xuán Fù Huā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Inulae(Xuán Fù Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams,②.3~10 grams,water decoction, wrap-boiling or strained the hairs.

(2).Inula britannica L.

 Inula britannica L.:flowering plant 02 Botanical description: Leaf blade oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, base-wide, cordate, ear, semi-clasped. Head, 2.5~5 cm in diameter; Involucre diameter 1.5~2.2 cm, 1 cm long. Achene cylindrical, shallow furrowed, covered with short hairs.

 Ecological environment:  The plant grows on the river bank, wet slope, ridge, and roadside. It distributes in the north area, northwest area, and other areas of China.
expectorants,herbs for resolving cold-phlegm.

 Introduction: Expectorants,herbs for resolving cold-phlegm: an agent or substance herbs warm in property, used in treating disorders of cold-phlegm or phlegm-dampness.
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